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Transmission - Patterns of Inheritance

Genetics Learning Framework

Society Learning Goals Articles Sample Learning Objectives
Transmission - Patterns of Inheritance
How can one deduce information about genes, alleles, and gene functions from analysis of genetic crosses and patterns of inheritance?
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  • Draw a pedigree based on information in a story problem.
  • Using pedigrees, distinguish between dominant, recessive, autosomal, X-linked, and cytoplasmic modes of inheritance.
  • Predict the transmission of phenotypes associated with maternal effect genes.
  • Explain why the terms “dominant” and “recessive” are context dependent and may differ at the cellular level or at the level of a pedigree.
  • Calculate the probability that an individual in a pedigree has a particular genotype (using Bayesian inference if appropriate for course).
  • Design genetic crosses to provide information about genes, alleles, and gene functions.
  • Interpret the results of experiments comparing the phenotypes that result from single mutations in two different genes with the phenotype of the double mutant, contrasting epistatic and additive interactions.
  • Explain how continuous traits are the result of many different gene combinations that can each contribute a varying amount to a phenotype.
  • Evaluate how genes and the environment can interact to produce a phenotype.
How does the phenomenon of linkage affect the assortment of alleles during meiosis?
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  • Diagram the process of homologous recombination during meiosis and explain how it can lead to new combinations of linked alleles.
  • Explain the role of homologous recombination in ensuring proper segregation of homologs in meiosis I
  • Explain how a specific combination of linked alleles (haplotype) can persist through many generations (linkage disequilibrium).
  • Calculate gene linkage and genetic map distances and interference from the frequencies of progeny with recombinant phenotypes from genetic crosses.
  • Explain how genetic distance is different from physical distance.
  • Calculate the probability of a particular gamete being produced from an individual, provided map distance.
  • Use statistical analysis to determine how well data from a genetic cross or human pedigree analysis fits theoretical predictions including an explanation of the appropriate statistical test.
  • Explain the meaning of a LOD score.
What are the mechanisms by which an organism’s genome is passed on to the next generation?
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  • Distinguish between somatic and germline cells; listing similarities and differences.
  • Compare and explain the inheritance of germline and somatic mutations.
  • Describe, using diagrams, the sequence of events involving DNA in meiosis from chromosome duplication through chromosome segregation. Explain how meiosis is different from mitosis.
  • Describe the difference between meiosis in mammalian males and females.
  • Distinguish between sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes.
  • Explain how independent assortment of alleles during meiosis can lead to new combinations of alleles of unlinked genes.
  • Discuss how errors in chromosome number can arise during meiosis, and why such alterations can be detrimental
  • Explain how abnormalities in gene dosage can affect phenotype.
  • Calculate the probability of a particular gamete being produced from an individual, assuming independent segregation.
  • Calculate the probability of a particular genotype, given independent segregation and random union of gametes between two individuals.
  • Contrast the mechanisms of inheritance of nuclear and organellar genetic information

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