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• ### Learning to Pipet Correctly by Pipetting Incorrectly?

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to use analytical balances and micropipettes.
• Students will be able to calculate averages and standard deviations.
• Students will be able to use t-tests to compare two independent samples.
• Students will be able to justify accepting or rejecting a null hypothesis based on an interpretation of p-values.
• Students will learn to use spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel and/or Google Sheets
• Students will be able to explain how pipetting incorrectly leads to errors.
• ### It's a bird! It's a plane! It's biomechanics!

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• identify and define forces that act on an object in flight.
• understand the definition of Newton’s third law of motion, which states that with every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, and apply this principle to explain pressure differences and lift generation.
• generate hypotheses about animal flight efficiency based on examining morphology (anatomy).
• generate hypotheses correlating wing size and performance during flight.
• apply their understanding of wing designs and wing relationships to total mass.
• compare flight principles among animals to understand the co-evolution in several animal groups.
• ### Investigating the Function of a Transport Protein: Where is ABCB6 Located in Human Cells?

Learning Objectives
At the end of this activity students will be able to:
• describe the use of two common research techniques for studying proteins: SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis.
• determine a protein’s subcellular location based on results from: 1) immunoblotting after differential centrifugation, and 2) immunofluorescence microscopy.
• analyze protein localization data based on the limitations of differential centrifugation and immunofluorescence microscopy.
• ### Using a Sequential Interpretation of Data in Envelopes (SIDE) approach to identify a mystery TRP channel

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to analyze data from multiple experimental methodologies to determine the identity of their "mystery" TRP channel.
• Students will be able to interpret the results of individual experiments and from multiple experiments simultaneously to identify their "mystery" TRP channel.
• Students will be able to evaluate the advantages and limitations of experimental methodologies presented in this lesson.
• ### GMC: Genes, Mutations and Cancer - Group Concept Map Development

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to
• describe the roles of oncogenes, proto-oncogenes, and tumor suppressors in cancer progression.
• determine the relationships between the types of mutations that can regulate cell division or contribute to cancer formation.
• identify potential cancer treatment strategies that could target the gene mutations including oncogenes and non-functional tumor suppressor genes.
• ### Teaching Cell Structures through Games

Learning Objectives
• Students will identify cell structures when viewing an image or diagram of a cell.
• Students will define the function of eukaryotic organelles and structures, including describing the processes and conditions related to transmembrane transport
• Students will differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, plant and animal cells according to their structural organization.
• ### Casting a Wide Net via Case Studies: Educating across the undergraduate to medical school continuum in the biological...

Learning Objectives
At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to:
• Consider the potential advantages and disadvantages of widespread use of whole genome sequencing and direct-to-consumer genetic testing.
• Explore the critical need to maintain privacy of individual genetic test results to protect patient interests.
• Dissect the nuances of reporting whole genome sequencing results.
• Recognize the economic ramifications of precision medicine strategies.
• Formulate a deeper understanding of the ethical dimensions of emerging genetic testing technologies.
• ### The Leaky Neuron: Understanding synaptic integration using an analogy involving leaky cups

Learning Objectives
Students will able to:
• compare and contrast spatial and temporal summation in terms of the number of presynaptic events and the timing of these events
• predict the relative contribution to reaching threshold and firing an action potential as a function of distance from the axon hillock
• predict how the frequency of incoming presynaptic action potentials effects the success of temporal summation of resultant postsynaptic potentials
• ### Exploration of the Human Genome by Investigation of Personalized SNPs

Learning Objectives
Students successfully completing this lesson will be able to:
• Effectively use the bioinformatics databases (SNPedia, the UCSC Genome Browser, and NCBI) to explore SNPs of interest within the human genome.
• Identify three health-related SNPs of personal interest and use the UCSC Genome Browser to define their precise chromosomal locations and determine whether they lie within a gene or are intergenic.
• Establish a list of all genome-wide association studies correlated with a particular health-related SNP.
• Predict which model organism would be most appropriate for conducting further research on a human disease.
• ### The impact of diet and antibiotics on the gut microbiome

Learning Objectives
After completing the exercise, students will be able to:
• Identify several of the nine phyla that contribute to the gut microbiome and name the two predominant ones;
• Describe how diet impacts the gut microbiome and compare the composition of the gut microbiome between different diets;
• Describe how antibiotic treatment impacts the gut microbiome and understand how this leads to infection, for example by Clostridium difficile;
• Trace the response to a change in diet, starting with i) changes in the composition of the microbiome, followed by ii) changes in the bacterial metabolic pathways and the respective excreted metabolic products, resulting in iii) a molecular response in the host intestinal cells, and eventually iv) resulting in human disease;
• Improve their ability to read scientific literature;
• Express themselves orally and in writing;
• Develop team working skill
• ### Bad Science: Exploring the unethical research behind a putative memory supplement

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• create criteria for evaluating information that is touted as scientific.
• apply those criteria to evaluate the claim that Prevagen® enhances memory.
• identify the misleading tactics used on the Prevagen® website and in their self-published reporting.
• decide whether to recommend taking Prevagen® and explain their decisions.
• ### Using Structured Decision Making to Explore Complex Environmental Issues

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
1. Describe the process, challenges, and benefits of structured decision making for natural resource management decisions.
2. Explain and reflect on the role of science and scientists in structured decision making and how those roles interact and compare to the roles of other stakeholders.
3. Assess scientific evidence for a given management or policy action to resolve an environmental issue.
• ### Promoting Climate Change Literacy for Non-majors: Implementation of an atmospheric carbon dioxide modeling activity as...

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to manipulate and produce data and graphs.
• Students will be able to design a simple mathematical model of atmospheric CO2 that can be used to make predictions.
• Students will be able to conduct simulations, analyze, interpret, and draw conclusions about atmospheric CO2 levels from their own computer generated simulated data.

• ### Building a Model of Tumorigenesis: A small group activity for a cancer biology/cell biology course

Learning Objectives
At the end of the activity, students will be able to:
• Analyze data from a retrospective clinical study uncovering genetic alterations in colorectal cancer.
• Draw conclusions about human tumorigenesis using data from a retrospective clinical study.
• Present scientific data in an appropriate and accurate way.
• Discuss why modeling is an important practice of science.
• Create a simple model of the genetic changes associated with a particular human cancer.
• ### Serotonin in the Pocket: Non-covalent interactions and neurotransmitter binding

Learning Objectives
• Students will design a binding site for the neurotransmitter serotonin.
• Students will be able to determine the effect of a change in molecular orientation on the affinity of the molecule for the binding site.
• Students will be able to determine the effect of a change in molecular charge on the affinity of the molecule for the binding site.
• Students will be able to better differentiate between hydrogen bond donors and acceptors.
• Students can use this knowledge to design binding sites for other metabolites.
• ### A Hands-on Introduction to Hidden Markov Models

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to process unannotated genomic data using ab initio gene finders as well as other inputs.
• Students will be able to defend the proposed gene annotation.
• Students will reflect on the other uses for HMMs.
• ### Priority Setting in Public Health: A lesson in ethics and hard choices

Learning Objectives
At the end of this unit, students will be able to:
• Define the central distinction between public health and medicine
• Apply objectives of public health and individual medical care in a particular situation to identify potential areas of conflict in priority setting
• Apply moral theories of utilitarianism and deontology to a particular situation to identify the course of action proponents of each theory would see as morally justified
• Identify the range of morally justifiable actions that might be available to a health professional in a particular setting
• Choose from among a range of possible actions in a particular health situation and articulate the ethical principles that would justify that choice.
• ### Plotting Cranial and Spinal Nerve Pathways in a Human Anatomy Lab

Learning Objectives
• Identify and describe the functions of cranial and spinal nerves
• Identify cranial and spinal nerve origination points and what structures they innervate
• Trace the routes that cranial and spinal nerves take throughout the body
• ### Knowing your own: A classroom case study using the scientific method to investigate how birds learn to recognize their...

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to identify and describe the steps of the scientific method.
• Students will be able to develop hypotheses and predictions.
• Students will be able to construct and interpret bar graphs based on data and predictions.
• Students will be able to draw conclusions from data presented in graphical form.
• ### Teaching the Biological Relevance of Chemical Kinetics Using Cold-Blooded Animal Biology

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Predict the effect of reaction temperature on the rate of a chemical reaction
• Interpret a graph plotted between rate of a chemical reaction and temperature
• Discuss chemical kinetics utilizing case studies of cold-blooded animals
• ### A clicker-based case study that untangles student thinking about the processes in the central dogma

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• explain the differences between silent (no change in the resulting amino acid sequence), missense (a change in the amino acid sequence), and nonsense (a change resulting in a premature stop codon) mutations.
• differentiate between how information is encoded during DNA replication, transcription, and translation.
• evaluate how different types of mutations (silent, missense, and nonsense) and the location of those mutations (intron, exon, and promoter) differentially affect the processes in the central dogma.
• predict the molecular (DNA size, mRNA length, mRNA abundance, and protein length) and/or phenotypic consequences of mutations.
• ### Translating Co-Translational Translocation

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• list the steps of co-translational translocation in the correct order.
• describe the key functions of molecules involved in co-translational translocation.
• predict the outcome of co-translational translocation if one of the components is missing.
• identify the characteristics of N-terminal ER signal sequences and internal ER signal sequences.
• predict or interpret the results of a protease protection assay used to assess co-translational translocation or transmembrane protein topology.
• predict the topology of a co-translationally translocated protein when given a description of the ER signal sequence or predict the type of ER signal sequence encoded by the mRNA-based protein topology.
• ### Teaching RNAseq at Undergraduate Institutions: A tutorial and R package from the Genome Consortium for Active Teaching

Learning Objectives
• From raw RNAseq data, run a basic analysis culminating in a list of differentially expressed genes.
• Explain and evaluate statistical tests in RNAseq data. Specifically, given the output of a particular test, students should be able to interpret and explain the result.
• Use the Linux command line to complete specified objectives in an RNAseq workflow.
• Generate meaningful visualizations of results from new data in R.
• (In addition, each chapter of this lesson plan contains more specific learning objectives, such as “Students will demonstrate their ability to map reads to a reference.”)
• ### Coevolution or not? Crossbills, squirrels and pinecones

Learning Objectives
1. Define coevolution.
2. Identify types of evidence that would help determine whether two species are currently in a coevolutionary relationship.
3. Interpret graphs.
4. Evaluate evidence about whether two species are coevolving and use evidence to make a scientific argument.
5. Describe what evidence of a coevolutionary relationship might look like.
6. Distinguish between coadaptation and coevolution.
• ### A Kinesthetic Modeling Activity to Teach PCR Fundamentals

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Draw or model the first three cycles of PCR, including the correct directionality (5’- and 3’-ends) of the primers and single-stranded PCR products.
• Diagram how single-stranded products from the first cycle of PCR are used as templates for subsequent PCR cycles.
• Demonstrate which parts of the primers will anneal to the original DNA template and subsequent PCR products.
• Model and demonstrate when the primer restriction enzyme sites are incorporated into double-stranded PCR products.
• Calculate the number of desired-length PCR products and long PCR products for each amplification cycle.
• Demonstrate how the incorporation of primer restriction enzyme sites into PCR products is a useful tool for subsequent cloning of the product into a vector.
• ### Discovering Prokaryotic Gene Regulation with Simulations of the trp Operon

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Perturb and interpret simulations of the trp operon.
• Define how simulation results relate to cellular events.
• Describe the biological role of the trp operon.
• Describe cellular mechanisms regulating the trp operon.
• Explain mechanistically how changes in the extracellular environment affect the trp operon.
• Define the impact of mutations on trp operon expression and regulation.
• ### Discovering Prokaryotic Gene Regulation by Building and Investigating a Computational Model of the lac Operon

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• model how the components of the lac operon contribute to gene regulation and expression.
• generate and test predictions using computational modeling and simulations.
• interpret and record graphs displaying simulation results.
• relate simulation results to cellular events.
• describe how changes in environmental glucose and lactose levels impact regulation of the lac operon.
• predict, test, and explain how mutations in specific elements in the lac operon affect their protein product and other elements within the operon.
• ### An undergraduate bioinformatics curriculum that teaches eukaryotic gene structure

Learning Objectives
Module 1
• Demonstrate basic skills in using the UCSC Genome Browser to navigate to a genomic region and to control the display settings for different evidence tracks.
• Explain the relationships among DNA, pre-mRNA, mRNA, and protein.
Module 2
• Describe how a primary transcript (pre-mRNA) can be synthesized using a DNA molecule as the template.
• Explain the importance of the 5' and 3' regions of the gene for initiation and termination of transcription by RNA polymerase II.
• Identify the beginning and the end of a transcript using the capabilities of the genome browser.
Module 3
• Explain how the primary transcript generated by RNA polymerase II is processed to become a mature mRNA, using the sequence signals identified in Module 2.
• Use the genome browser to analyze the relationships among:
• pre-mRNA
• 5' capping
• splicing
• mRNA
Module 4
• Identify splice donor and acceptor sites that are best supported by RNA-Seq data and TopHat splice junction predictions.
• Utilize the canonical splice donor and splice acceptor sequences to identify intron-exon boundaries.
Module 5
• Determine the codons for specific amino acids and identify reading frames by examining the Base Position track in the genome browser.
• Assemble exons to maintain the open reading frame (ORF) for a given gene.
• Define the phases of the splice donor and acceptor sites and describe how they impact the maintenance of the ORF.
• Identify the start and stop codons of an assembled ORF.
Module 6
• Demonstrate how alternative splicing of a gene can lead to different mRNAs.
• Show how alternative splicing can lead to the production of different polypeptides and result in drastic changes in phenotype.
• ### Discovering Cellular Respiration with Computational Modeling and Simulations

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Describe how changes in cellular homeostasis affect metabolic intermediates.
• Perturb and interpret a simulation of cellular respiration.
• Describe cellular mechanisms regulating cellular respiration.
• Describe how glucose, oxygen, and coenzymes affect cellular respiration.
• Describe the interconnectedness of cellular respiration.
• Identify and describe the inputs and outputs of cellular respiration, glycolysis, pyruvate processing, citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain.
• Describe how different energy sources are used in cellular respiration.
• Trace carbon through cellular respiration from glucose to carbon dioxide.
• ### Cell Signaling Pathways - a Case Study Approach

Learning Objectives
• Use knowledge of positive and negative regulation of signaling pathways to predict the outcome of genetic modifications or pharmaceutical manipulation.
• From phenotypic data, predict whether a mutation is in a coding or a regulatory region of a gene involved in signaling.
• Use data, combined with knowledge of pathways, to make reasonable predictions about the genetic basis of altered signaling pathways.
• Interpret and use pathway diagrams.
• Synthesize information by applying prior knowledge on gene expression when considering congenital syndromes.
• ### An active-learning lesson that targets student understanding of population growth in ecology

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Calculate and compare population density and abundance.
• Identify whether a growth curve describes exponential, linear, and/or logistic growth.
• Describe and calculate a population's growth rate using linear, exponential, and logistic models.
• Explain the influence of carrying capacity and population density on growth rate.
• ### A Close-Up Look at PCR

Learning Objectives
At the end of this lesson students will be able to...
• Describe the role of a primer in PCR
• Predict sequence and length of PCR product based on primer sequences
• Recognize that primers are incorporated into the final PCR products and explain why
• Identify covalent and hydrogen bonds formed and broken during PCR
• Predict the structure of PCR products after each cycle of the reaction
• Explain why amplification proceeds exponentially
• ### Using Place-Based Economically Relevant Organisms to Improve Student Understanding of the Roles of Carbon Dioxide,...

Learning Objectives
At the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Describe the roles of light energy and carbon dioxide in photosynthetic organisms.
• Identify the effect of nutrients on the growth of photosynthetic organisms.
• Describe global cycles in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and how they relate to photosynthetic organisms.
• ### The Avocado Lab: An Inquiry-Driven Exploration of an Enzymatic Browning Reaction

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• develop a testable research question and supportive hypothesis regarding the browning of damaged avocado flesh caused by the activity of avocado polyphenol oxidase (aPPO).
• design and execute a well-controlled experiment to test aPPO hypotheses.
• evaluate qualitative enzyme activity data.
• create a figure and legend to present qualitative data that tests multiple hypotheses and variables.
• search for and correctly cite primary literature to support or refute hypotheses.
• know the role of reducing reagents, pH, chelators, and temperature in reactions catalyzed by aPPO.
• explain why the effects of salt and detergent differ for aPPO experiments conducted in situ
• (in mashed avocado flesh) as compared to in vitro (on purified protein).
• discuss how substrate and cofactor availability affect aPPO reactions.
• describe how endogenous subcellular organization restricts aPPO reactions in a healthy avocado.
• evaluate food handling practices for fruits expressing PPO.
• ### Lights, Camera, Acting Transport! Using role-play to teach membrane transport

Learning Objectives
At the end of this activity, students should be able to:
• Compare and contrast the mechanisms of simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport (both primary and secondary).
• Identify, and provide a rationale for, the mechanism(s) by which various substances cross the plasma membrane.
• Describe the steps involved in the transport of ions by the Na+/K+ pump, and explain the importance of electrogenic pumps to the generation and maintenance of membrane potentials.
• Explain the function of electrochemical gradients as potential energy sources specifically used in secondary active transport.
• Relate each molecule or ion transported by the Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) to its own concentration or electrochemical gradient, and describe which molecules travel with and against these gradients.
• ### Homologous chromosomes? Exploring human sex chromosomes, sex determination and sex reversal using bioinformatics...

Learning Objectives
Students successfully completing this lesson will:
• Practice navigating an online bioinformatics resource and identify evidence relevant to solving investigation questions
• Contrast the array of genes expected on homologous autosomal chromosomes pairs with the array of genes expected on sex chromosome pairs
• Use bioinformatics evidence to defend the definition of homologous chromosomes
• Define chromosomal sex and defend the definition using experimental data
• Investigate the genetic basis of human chromosomal sex determination
• Identify at least two genetic mutations can lead to sex reversal
• ### A flexible, multi-week approach to plant biology - How will plants respond to higher levels of CO2?

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Apply findings from each week's lesson to make predictions and informed hypotheses about the next week's lesson.
• Keep a detailed laboratory notebook.
• Write and peer-edit the sections of a scientific paper, and collaboratively write an entire lab report in the form of a scientific research paper.
• Search for, find, and read scientific research papers.
• Work together as a team to conduct experiments.
• Connect findings and ideas from each week's lesson to get a broader understanding of how plants will respond to higher levels of CO2 (e.g., stomatal density, photosynthetic/respiratory rates, foliar protein concentrations, growth, and resource allocation).
Note: Additional, more specific objectives are included with each of the four lessons (Supporting Files S1-S4)
• ### Meiosis: A Play in Three Acts, Starring DNA Sequence

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to identify sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes at different stages of meiosis.
• Students will be able to identify haploid and diploid cells, whether or not the chromosomes are replicated.
• Students will be able to explain why homologous chromosomes must pair during meiosis.
• Students will be able to relate DNA sequence similarity to chromosomal structures.
• Students will be able to identify crossing over as the key to proper pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
• Students will be able to predict the outcomes of meiosis for a particular individual or cell.
• ### Sex-specific differences in Meiosis: Real-world applications

Learning Objectives
After completion of the lesson students will be able to:
1. Describe the differences between female and male meiosis.
2. Interpret graphical data to make decisions relevant to medical practices.
3. Develop a hypothesis that explains the difference in incidence of aneuploidy in gametes between males and females.
• ### Using the Cell Engineer/Detective Approach to Explore Cell Structure and Function

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Identify the major cell organelles
• List the major functions of the organelles
• Predict how changes in organelle/cell structure could alter cellular function
• Explain how overall cellular function is dependent upon organelles/cell structure
• Relate cell structure to everyday contexts
• ### Why Meiosis Matters: The case of the fatherless snake

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Compare and contrast the process and outcomes of mitosis & meiosis
• Predict consequences of abnormal meiosis including
• The potential genotype and/or phenotypes of offspring produced when meiosis does not occur properly
• The stage(s) of meiosis that could have been abnormal given an offspring’s genotype and/or phenotype
• ### Dilution and Pipetting Lesson Using Food Dyes

Learning Objectives
• Students can use the formula c1v1=c2v2 to calculate dilutions.
• Students can accurately set and use a micropipette.
• Students are able to prepare complex solutions such as enzyme reactions.
• ### Teaching epidemiology and principles of infectious disease using popular media and the case of Typhoid Mary

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Describe the reservoirs of infection in humans.
• Distinguish portals of entry and exit.
• Describe how each of the following contributes to bacterial virulence: adhesins, extracellular enzymes, toxins, and antiphagocytic factors.
• Define and distinguish etiology and epidemiology.
• Describe the five typical stages of infectious disease and depict the stages in graphical form.
• Contrast contact, vehicle and vector transmission, biological and mechanical vectors and identify the mode of transmission in a given scenario.
• Differentiate endemic, sporadic, epidemic, and pandemic disease.
• Distinguish descriptive, analytical, and experimental epidemiology.
• Compare and contrast social, economic, and cultural factors impacting health care in the early 1900s and today.
• ### Make It Stick: Teaching Gene Targeting with Ribbons and Fasteners

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to design targeting constructs.
• Students will be able to predict changes to the gene locus after homologous recombination.
• Students will be able to design experiments to answer a biological question (e.g., "Design an experiment to test if the expression of gene X is necessary for limb development").
• ### A simple way for students to visualize cellular respiration: adapting the board game MousetrapTM to model complexity

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to describe the three stages of cellular respiration.
• Students will be able to identify the reactants entering and the products formed during each stage of cellular respiration.
• Students will be able to explain how chemical energy in carbohydrates is transferred to ATP through the stages of cellular respiration.
• Students will be able to explain the effects of compartmentalization of cellular respiration reactions in different cellular spaces.
• Students will be able to predict biological outcomes when a specific stage(s) of cellular respiration is altered.