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Bloom's Cognitive Level
Vision and Change Core Competencies
Vision and Change Core Concepts
Key Scientific Process Skills
Principles of How People Learn
A Close-Up Look at PCRLearning ObjectivesAt the end of this lesson students will be able to...
- Describe the role of a primer in PCR
- Predict sequence and length of PCR product based on primer sequences
- Recognize that primers are incorporated into the final PCR products and explain why
- Identify covalent and hydrogen bonds formed and broken during PCR
- Predict the structure of PCR products after each cycle of the reaction
- Explain why amplification proceeds exponentially
The Leaky Neuron: Understanding synaptic integration using an analogy involving leaky cupsLearning ObjectivesStudents will able to:
- compare and contrast spatial and temporal summation in terms of the number of presynaptic events and the timing of these events
- predict the relative contribution to reaching threshold and firing an action potential as a function of distance from the axon hillock
- predict how the frequency of incoming presynaptic action potentials effects the success of temporal summation of resultant postsynaptic potentials
Discovery Poster ProjectLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- identify and learn about a scientific research discovery of interest to them using popular press articles and the primary literature
- find a group on campus doing research that aligns with their interests and communicate with the faculty leader of that group
- create and present a poster that synthesizes their knowledge of the research beyond the discovery
Bad Science: Exploring the unethical research behind a putative memory supplementLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- create criteria for evaluating information that is touted as scientific.
- apply those criteria to evaluate the claim that Prevagen® enhances memory.
- identify the misleading tactics used on the Prevagen® website and in their self-published reporting.
- decide whether to recommend taking Prevagen® and explain their decisions.
Using Place-Based Economically Relevant Organisms to Improve Student Understanding of the Roles of Carbon Dioxide,...Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
- Describe the roles of light energy and carbon dioxide in photosynthetic organisms.
- Identify the effect of nutrients on the growth of photosynthetic organisms.
- Describe global cycles in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and how they relate to photosynthetic organisms.
Understanding Protein Domains: A Modular ApproachLearning Objectives
- Students will be able to compare protein sequences and identify conserved regions and putative domains.
- Students will be able to obtain, examine, and compare structural models of protein domains.
- Students will be able to interpret data on protein interactions (in vitro pull-down and in vitro and in vivo functional assays)
- Students will be able to propose experiments to test protein interactions.
Investigating the Function of a Transport Protein: Where is ABCB6 Located in Human Cells?Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this activity students will be able to:
- describe the use of two common research techniques for studying proteins: SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis.
- determine a protein’s subcellular location based on results from: 1) immunoblotting after differential centrifugation, and 2) immunofluorescence microscopy.
- analyze protein localization data based on the limitations of differential centrifugation and immunofluorescence microscopy.
Linking Genotype to Phenotype: The Effect of a Mutation in Gibberellic Acid Production on Plant GerminationLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- identify when germination occurs.
- score germination in the presence and absence of GA to construct graphs of collated class data of wild-type and mutant specimens.
- identify the genotype of an unknown sample based on the analysis of their graphical data.
- organize data and perform quantitative data analysis.
- explain the importance of GA for plant germination.
- connect the inheritance of a mutation with the observed phenotype.
Evaluating the Quick Fix: Weight Loss Drugs and Cellular RespirationLearning Objectives
- Students will be able to explain how the energy from sugars is transformed into ATP via cellular respiration.
- Students will be able to predict an outcome if there is a perturbation in the cellular respiration pathway.
- Students will be able to state and evaluate a hypothesis.
- Students will be able to interpret data from a graph, and use that data to make inferences about the action of a drug.
Casting a Wide Net via Case Studies: Educating across the undergraduate to medical school continuum in the biological...Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this lesson, the student should be able to:
- Consider the potential advantages and disadvantages of widespread use of whole genome sequencing and direct-to-consumer genetic testing.
- Explore the critical need to maintain privacy of individual genetic test results to protect patient interests.
- Dissect the nuances of reporting whole genome sequencing results.
- Recognize the economic ramifications of precision medicine strategies.
- Formulate a deeper understanding of the ethical dimensions of emerging genetic testing technologies.
Serotonin in the Pocket: Non-covalent interactions and neurotransmitter bindingLearning Objectives
- Students will design a binding site for the neurotransmitter serotonin.
- Students will be able to determine the effect of a change in molecular orientation on the affinity of the molecule for the binding site.
- Students will be able to determine the effect of a change in molecular charge on the affinity of the molecule for the binding site.
- Students will be able to better differentiate between hydrogen bond donors and acceptors.
- Students can use this knowledge to design binding sites for other metabolites.
An undergraduate bioinformatics curriculum that teaches eukaryotic gene structureLearning ObjectivesModule 1
- Demonstrate basic skills in using the UCSC Genome Browser to navigate to a genomic region and to control the display settings for different evidence tracks.
- Explain the relationships among DNA, pre-mRNA, mRNA, and protein.
- Describe how a primary transcript (pre-mRNA) can be synthesized using a DNA molecule as the template.
- Explain the importance of the 5' and 3' regions of the gene for initiation and termination of transcription by RNA polymerase II.
- Identify the beginning and the end of a transcript using the capabilities of the genome browser.
- Explain how the primary transcript generated by RNA polymerase II is processed to become a mature mRNA, using the sequence signals identified in Module 2.
- Use the genome browser to analyze the relationships among:
- 5' capping
- 3' polyadenylation
- Identify splice donor and acceptor sites that are best supported by RNA-Seq data and TopHat splice junction predictions.
- Utilize the canonical splice donor and splice acceptor sequences to identify intron-exon boundaries.
- Determine the codons for specific amino acids and identify reading frames by examining the Base Position track in the genome browser.
- Assemble exons to maintain the open reading frame (ORF) for a given gene.
- Define the phases of the splice donor and acceptor sites and describe how they impact the maintenance of the ORF.
- Identify the start and stop codons of an assembled ORF.
- Demonstrate how alternative splicing of a gene can lead to different mRNAs.
- Show how alternative splicing can lead to the production of different polypeptides and result in drastic changes in phenotype.
An active-learning lesson that targets student understanding of population growth in ecologyLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Calculate and compare population density and abundance.
- Identify whether a growth curve describes exponential, linear, and/or logistic growth.
- Describe and calculate a population's growth rate using linear, exponential, and logistic models.
- Explain the influence of carrying capacity and population density on growth rate.
Promoting Climate Change Literacy for Non-majors: Implementation of an atmospheric carbon dioxide modeling activity as...Learning Objectives
- Students will be able to manipulate and produce data and graphs.
- Students will be able to design a simple mathematical model of atmospheric CO2 that can be used to make predictions.
- Students will be able to conduct simulations, analyze, interpret, and draw conclusions about atmospheric CO2 levels from their own computer generated simulated data.
A simple way for students to visualize cellular respiration: adapting the board game MousetrapTM to model complexityLearning Objectives
- Students will be able to describe the three stages of cellular respiration.
- Students will be able to identify the reactants entering and the products formed during each stage of cellular respiration.
- Students will be able to explain how chemical energy in carbohydrates is transferred to ATP through the stages of cellular respiration.
- Students will be able to explain the effects of compartmentalization of cellular respiration reactions in different cellular spaces.
- Students will be able to predict biological outcomes when a specific stage(s) of cellular respiration is altered.
Meiosis: A Play in Three Acts, Starring DNA SequenceLearning Objectives
- Students will be able to identify sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes at different stages of meiosis.
- Students will be able to identify haploid and diploid cells, whether or not the chromosomes are replicated.
- Students will be able to explain why homologous chromosomes must pair during meiosis.
- Students will be able to relate DNA sequence similarity to chromosomal structures.
- Students will be able to identify crossing over as the key to proper pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
- Students will be able to predict the outcomes of meiosis for a particular individual or cell.
In-class peer grading of daily quizzes increases feedback opportunitiesLearning ObjectivesEach of these objectives are illustrated with a succinct slide presentation or other supplemental material available ahead of class time through the course administration system. Learners found it particularly helpful to have video clips that remind them of mathematical manipulations available (in the above example objective c). Students understand that foundational objectives tend to be the focus of the quiz (objectives a-d) and that others will be given more time to work on together in class (objectives e-g), but I don't specify this exactly to reduce temptation that 'gamers' take a shortcut that would impact their group work negatively later on. However, the assignment for a focused graded group activity is posted as well, so it is clear what we are working towards; if desired individuals could prepare ahead of the class.
Sex and gender: What does it mean to be female or male?Learning Objectives
- Students will be able to distinguish between sex and gender, and apply each term appropriately.
- Students will be able to compare and contrast levels of sexual determination.
- Students will be able to critique societal misrepresentations surrounding sex, gender, and gender identity.
Cell Signaling Pathways - a Case Study ApproachLearning Objectives
- Use knowledge of positive and negative regulation of signaling pathways to predict the outcome of genetic modifications or pharmaceutical manipulation.
- From phenotypic data, predict whether a mutation is in a coding or a regulatory region of a gene involved in signaling.
- Use data, combined with knowledge of pathways, to make reasonable predictions about the genetic basis of altered signaling pathways.
- Interpret and use pathway diagrams.
- Synthesize information by applying prior knowledge on gene expression when considering congenital syndromes.
A clicker-based case study that untangles student thinking about the processes in the central dogmaLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- explain the differences between silent (no change in the resulting amino acid sequence), missense (a change in the amino acid sequence), and nonsense (a change resulting in a premature stop codon) mutations.
- differentiate between how information is encoded during DNA replication, transcription, and translation.
- evaluate how different types of mutations (silent, missense, and nonsense) and the location of those mutations (intron, exon, and promoter) differentially affect the processes in the central dogma.
- predict the molecular (DNA size, mRNA length, mRNA abundance, and protein length) and/or phenotypic consequences of mutations.
Predicting and classifying effects of insertion and deletion mutations on protein coding regionsLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- accurately predict effects of frameshift mutations in protein coding regions
- conduct statistical analysis to compare expected and observed values
- become familiar with accessing and using DNA sequence databases and analysis tools
Knowing your own: A classroom case study using the scientific method to investigate how birds learn to recognize their...Learning Objectives
- Students will be able to identify and describe the steps of the scientific method.
- Students will be able to develop hypotheses and predictions.
- Students will be able to construct and interpret bar graphs based on data and predictions.
- Students will be able to draw conclusions from data presented in graphical form.
Cutthroat trout in Colorado: A case study connecting evolution and conservationLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- interpret figures such as maps, phylogenies, STRUCTURE plots, and networks for species delimitation
- identify sources of uncertainty and disagreement in real data sets
- propose research to address or remedy uncertainty
- construct an evidence-based argument for the management of a rare taxon
Authentic Ecological Inquiries Using BearCam ArchivesLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- conduct an authentic ecological inquiry including
- generate a testable hypothesis based on observations,
- design investigation with appropriate sampling selection and variables,
- collect and analyze data following the design, and
- interpret results and draw conclusions based on the evidence.
- write a research report with appropriate structure and style.
- evaluate the quality of inquiry reports using a rubric.
- conduct peer review to evaluate and provide feedback to others' work.
- revise the inquiry report based on peer feedback and self-assessment.
- conduct an authentic ecological inquiry including
Taking the Hassle out of HasselbalchLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Characterize an aqueous environment as acidic or basic.
- Explain that pKa is a measure of how easy it is to remove a proton from a molecule.
- Predict ionization state of a molecule at a particular pH based on its pKa (qualitative use of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation).
- Calculate the ratio of protonated/unprotonated forms of ionizable groups depending on chemical characteristics and /or environment pH (quantitative use of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation).
- Apply this knowledge in a medical context.
A first lesson in mathematical modeling for biologists: RocsLearning Objectives
- Systematically develop a functioning, discrete, single-species model of an exponentially-growing or -declining population.
- Use the model to recommend appropriate action for population management.
- Communicate model output and recommendations to non-expert audiences.
- Generate a collaborative work product that most individuals could not generate on their own, given time and resource constraints.
Teaching epidemiology and principles of infectious disease using popular media and the case of Typhoid MaryLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Describe the reservoirs of infection in humans.
- Distinguish portals of entry and exit.
- Describe how each of the following contributes to bacterial virulence: adhesins, extracellular enzymes, toxins, and antiphagocytic factors.
- Define and distinguish etiology and epidemiology.
- Describe the five typical stages of infectious disease and depict the stages in graphical form.
- Contrast contact, vehicle and vector transmission, biological and mechanical vectors and identify the mode of transmission in a given scenario.
- Differentiate endemic, sporadic, epidemic, and pandemic disease.
- Distinguish descriptive, analytical, and experimental epidemiology.
- Compare and contrast social, economic, and cultural factors impacting health care in the early 1900s and today.
Using Gamification to Teach Undergraduate Students about Scientific WritingLearning ObjectivesTopics within Playon Words are grouped into “mini-games.” The Learning Objectives for each mini-game are as follows: Sentence Sensei
- Identify the best sentence variant from a list of options
- Identify and eliminate needless words
- Identify where and when to use different types of punctuation marks
- Identify and correct common grammar mistakes
- Organize sentences in a logical order
- Describe the components of different sections of a scientific paper
- Identify the section of a scientific paper where a given sentence belongs
- Eliminate sentences which do not belong in a given writing sample
- Classify statements as scientific or non-scientific
- Identify which statements support a particular hypothesis or position
- Classify provided sentences (e.g. hypotheses vs. predictions, problems vs. experiments, results vs. discussion)
- Compare and contrast different types (e.g. primary literature, review articles, popular literature etc.) and sources (PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar etc.) of scientific information
- Identify locations in texts where citations are needed
- Identify citations and/or references that are incorrect or missing key information
- Identify information that does not belong in the reference list (e.g. vendor information)
Out of Your Seat and on Your Feet! An adaptable course-based research project in plant ecology for advanced studentsLearning ObjectivesStudents will:
- Articulate testable hypotheses. (Lab 8, final presentation/paper, in-class exercises)
- Analyze data to determine the level of support for articulated hypotheses. (Labs 4-7, final presentation/paper)
- Identify multiple species of plants in the field quickly and accurately. (Labs 2-3, field trip)
- Measure environmental variables and sample vegetation in the field. (Labs 2-3, field trip)
- Analyze soil samples using a variety of low-tech lab techniques. (Open labs after field trip)
- Use multiple statistical techniques to analyze data for patterns. (Labs 4-8, final presentation/paper)
- Interpret statistical analyses to distinguish between strong and weak interactions in a biological system. (Labs 4-7, final presentation/paper)
- Develop and present a conference-style presentation in a public forum. (Lab 8, final presentation/paper)
- Write a publication-ready research paper communicating findings and displaying data. (Lab 8, final presentation/paper)
Teaching Genetic Linkage and Recombination through Mapping with Molecular MarkersLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Explain how recombination can lead to new combinations of linked alleles.
- Explain how molecular markers (such as microsatellites) can be used to map the location of genes/loci, including what crosses would be informative and why.
- Explain how banding patterns on an electrophoresis gel represent the segregation of alleles during meiosis.
- Predict how recombination frequency between two linked loci affects the genotype frequencies of the products of meiosis compared to loci that are unlinked (or very tightly linked).
- Analyze data from a cross (phenotypes and/or genotypes) to determine if the cross involves linked genes.
- Calculate the map distance between linked genes using data from genetic crosses, such as gel electrophoresis banding patterns.
- Justify conclusions about genetic linkage by describing the information in the data that allows you to determine genes are linked.
Air Quality Data Mining: Mining the US EPA AirData website for student-led evaluation of air quality issuesLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Describe various parameters of air quality that can negatively impact human health, list priority air pollutants, and interpret the EPA Air Quality Index as it relates to human health.
- Identify an air quality problem that varies on spatial and/or temporal scales that can be addressed using publicly available U.S. EPA air data.
- Collect appropriate U.S. EPA Airdata information needed to answer that/those questions, using the U.S. EPA Airdata website data mining tools.
- Analyze the data as needed to address or answer their question(s).
- Interpret data and draw conclusions regarding air quality levels and/or impacts on human and public health.
- Communicate results in the form of a scientific paper.
Building a Model of Tumorigenesis: A small group activity for a cancer biology/cell biology courseLearning ObjectivesAt the end of the activity, students will be able to:
- Analyze data from a retrospective clinical study uncovering genetic alterations in colorectal cancer.
- Draw conclusions about human tumorigenesis using data from a retrospective clinical study.
- Present scientific data in an appropriate and accurate way.
- Discuss why modeling is an important practice of science.
- Create a simple model of the genetic changes associated with a particular human cancer.
A Kinesthetic Modeling Activity to Teach PCR FundamentalsLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Draw or model the first three cycles of PCR, including the correct directionality (5’- and 3’-ends) of the primers and single-stranded PCR products.
- Diagram how single-stranded products from the first cycle of PCR are used as templates for subsequent PCR cycles.
- Demonstrate which parts of the primers will anneal to the original DNA template and subsequent PCR products.
- Model and demonstrate when the primer restriction enzyme sites are incorporated into double-stranded PCR products.
- Calculate the number of desired-length PCR products and long PCR products for each amplification cycle.
- Demonstrate how the incorporation of primer restriction enzyme sites into PCR products is a useful tool for subsequent cloning of the product into a vector.
Infectious Chocolate Joy with a Side of Poissonian Statistics: An activity connecting life science students with subtle...Learning Objectives
- Students will define a Poisson distribution.
- Students will generate a data set on the probability of a T cell being infected with a virus(es).
- Students will predict the likelihood of one observing the mean value of viruses occurring.
- Students will evaluate the outcomes of a random process.
- Students will hypothesize whether a process is Poissonian and design a test for that hypothesis.
- Students will collect data and create a histogram from their data.
Bad Cell Reception? Using a cell part activity to help students appreciate cell biology, with an improved data plan and...Learning Objectives
- Identify cell parts and explain their function
- Explain how defects in a cell part can result in human disease
- Generate thought-provoking questions that expand upon existing knowledge
- Create a hypothesis and plan an experiment to answer a cell part question
- Find and reference relevant cell biology journal articles
Using Pathway Maps to Link Concepts, Peer Review, Primary Literature Searches and Data Assessment in Large Enrollment...Learning Objectives
- Define basic concepts and terminology of Ecosystem Ecology
- Link biological processes that affect each other
- Evaluate whether the link causes a positive, negative, or neutral effect
- Find primary literature
- Identify data that correctly supports or refutes an hypothesis
Does it pose a threat? Investigating the impact of Bt corn on monarch butterfliesLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Apply genetics concepts to a relevant case study of Bt corn and monarch butterflies
- Read figures and text from primary literature
- Identify claims presented in scientific studies
- Evaluate data presented in scientific studies
- Critically reason using data
- Evaluate the consequences of GM technology on non-target organisms
- Communicate scientific data orally
Homologous chromosomes? Exploring human sex chromosomes, sex determination and sex reversal using bioinformatics...Learning ObjectivesStudents successfully completing this lesson will:
- Practice navigating an online bioinformatics resource and identify evidence relevant to solving investigation questions
- Contrast the array of genes expected on homologous autosomal chromosomes pairs with the array of genes expected on sex chromosome pairs
- Use bioinformatics evidence to defend the definition of homologous chromosomes
- Define chromosomal sex and defend the definition using experimental data
- Investigate the genetic basis of human chromosomal sex determination
- Identify at least two genetic mutations can lead to sex reversal
Coevolution or not? Crossbills, squirrels and pineconesLearning Objectives
- Define coevolution.
- Identify types of evidence that would help determine whether two species are currently in a coevolutionary relationship.
- Interpret graphs.
- Evaluate evidence about whether two species are coevolving and use evidence to make a scientific argument.
- Describe what evidence of a coevolutionary relationship might look like.
- Distinguish between coadaptation and coevolution.
Why Meiosis Matters: The case of the fatherless snakeLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Compare and contrast the process and outcomes of mitosis & meiosis
- Predict consequences of abnormal meiosis including
- The potential genotype and/or phenotypes of offspring produced when meiosis does not occur properly
- The stage(s) of meiosis that could have been abnormal given an offspring’s genotype and/or phenotype