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GMC: Genes, Mutations and Cancer - Group Concept Map DevelopmentLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to
- describe the roles of oncogenes, proto-oncogenes, and tumor suppressors in cancer progression.
- determine the relationships between the types of mutations that can regulate cell division or contribute to cancer formation.
- identify potential cancer treatment strategies that could target the gene mutations including oncogenes and non-functional tumor suppressor genes.
Fly Exercise: A Simple Experiment to Test the Physiological Effects of Exercise on a Model OrganismLearning ObjectivesStudents will:
- demonstrate understanding of the concept and details of experimental design.
- perform an organic lipid extraction to determine total lipid content.
- quantify enzyme activity, as well as triglyceride, glucose, and glycogen concentrations.
- organize their collected data into spreadsheets for statistical analyses.
- interpret the results to gain insight on the varying effects exercise has on an organism's physiology.
- graphically present their results so that trends can be easily identified.
It's a bird! It's a plane! It's biomechanics!Learning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- identify and define forces that act on an object in flight.
- understand the definition of Newton’s third law of motion, which states that with every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, and apply this principle to explain pressure differences and lift generation.
- generate hypotheses about animal flight efficiency based on examining morphology (anatomy).
- generate hypotheses correlating wing size and performance during flight.
- apply their understanding of wing designs and wing relationships to total mass.
- compare flight principles among animals to understand the co-evolution in several animal groups.
The impact of diet and antibiotics on the gut microbiomeLearning ObjectivesAfter completing the exercise, students will be able to:
- Identify several of the nine phyla that contribute to the gut microbiome and name the two predominant ones;
- Describe how diet impacts the gut microbiome and compare the composition of the gut microbiome between different diets;
- Describe how antibiotic treatment impacts the gut microbiome and understand how this leads to infection, for example by Clostridium difficile;
- Trace the response to a change in diet, starting with i) changes in the composition of the microbiome, followed by ii) changes in the bacterial metabolic pathways and the respective excreted metabolic products, resulting in iii) a molecular response in the host intestinal cells, and eventually iv) resulting in human disease;
- Improve their ability to read scientific literature;
- Express themselves orally and in writing;
- Develop team working skill
A Close-Up Look at PCRLearning ObjectivesAt the end of this lesson students will be able to...
- Describe the role of a primer in PCR
- Predict sequence and length of PCR product based on primer sequences
- Recognize that primers are incorporated into the final PCR products and explain why
- Identify covalent and hydrogen bonds formed and broken during PCR
- Predict the structure of PCR products after each cycle of the reaction
- Explain why amplification proceeds exponentially
A clicker-based case study that untangles student thinking about the processes in the central dogmaLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- explain the differences between silent (no change in the resulting amino acid sequence), missense (a change in the amino acid sequence), and nonsense (a change resulting in a premature stop codon) mutations.
- differentiate between how information is encoded during DNA replication, transcription, and translation.
- evaluate how different types of mutations (silent, missense, and nonsense) and the location of those mutations (intron, exon, and promoter) differentially affect the processes in the central dogma.
- predict the molecular (DNA size, mRNA length, mRNA abundance, and protein length) and/or phenotypic consequences of mutations.
Evaluating the Quick Fix: Weight Loss Drugs and Cellular RespirationLearning Objectives
- Students will be able to explain how the energy from sugars is transformed into ATP via cellular respiration.
- Students will be able to predict an outcome if there is a perturbation in the cellular respiration pathway.
- Students will be able to state and evaluate a hypothesis.
- Students will be able to interpret data from a graph, and use that data to make inferences about the action of a drug.
An undergraduate bioinformatics curriculum that teaches eukaryotic gene structureLearning ObjectivesModule 1
- Demonstrate basic skills in using the UCSC Genome Browser to navigate to a genomic region and to control the display settings for different evidence tracks.
- Explain the relationships among DNA, pre-mRNA, mRNA, and protein.
- Describe how a primary transcript (pre-mRNA) can be synthesized using a DNA molecule as the template.
- Explain the importance of the 5' and 3' regions of the gene for initiation and termination of transcription by RNA polymerase II.
- Identify the beginning and the end of a transcript using the capabilities of the genome browser.
- Explain how the primary transcript generated by RNA polymerase II is processed to become a mature mRNA, using the sequence signals identified in Module 2.
- Use the genome browser to analyze the relationships among:
- 5' capping
- 3' polyadenylation
- Identify splice donor and acceptor sites that are best supported by RNA-Seq data and TopHat splice junction predictions.
- Utilize the canonical splice donor and splice acceptor sequences to identify intron-exon boundaries.
- Determine the codons for specific amino acids and identify reading frames by examining the Base Position track in the genome browser.
- Assemble exons to maintain the open reading frame (ORF) for a given gene.
- Define the phases of the splice donor and acceptor sites and describe how they impact the maintenance of the ORF.
- Identify the start and stop codons of an assembled ORF.
- Demonstrate how alternative splicing of a gene can lead to different mRNAs.
- Show how alternative splicing can lead to the production of different polypeptides and result in drastic changes in phenotype.
The Avocado Lab: An Inquiry-Driven Exploration of an Enzymatic Browning ReactionLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- develop a testable research question and supportive hypothesis regarding the browning of damaged avocado flesh caused by the activity of avocado polyphenol oxidase (aPPO).
- design and execute a well-controlled experiment to test aPPO hypotheses.
- evaluate qualitative enzyme activity data.
- create a figure and legend to present qualitative data that tests multiple hypotheses and variables.
- search for and correctly cite primary literature to support or refute hypotheses.
- know the role of reducing reagents, pH, chelators, and temperature in reactions catalyzed by aPPO.
- explain why the effects of salt and detergent differ for aPPO experiments conducted in situ
- (in mashed avocado flesh) as compared to in vitro (on purified protein).
- discuss how substrate and cofactor availability affect aPPO reactions.
- describe how endogenous subcellular organization restricts aPPO reactions in a healthy avocado.
- evaluate food handling practices for fruits expressing PPO.
Follow the Sulfur: Using Yeast Mutants to Study a Metabolic PathwayLearning ObjectivesAt the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
- use spot plating techniques to compare the growth of yeast strains on solid culture media.
- predict the ability of specific met deletion strains to grow on media containing various sulfur sources.
- predict how mutations in specific genes will affect the concentrations of metabolites in the pathways involved in methionine biosynthesis.
Investigating Cell Signaling with Gene Expression DatasetsLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Explain the hierarchical organization of signal transduction pathways.
- Explain the role of enzymes in signal propagation and amplification.
- Recognize the centrality of signaling pathways in cellular processes, such as metabolism, cell division, or cell motility.
- Rationalize the etiologic basis of disease in terms of deranged signaling pathways.
- Use software to analyze and interpret gene expression data.
- Use an appropriate statistical method for hypotheses testing.
- Produce reports that are written in scientific style.
Taking the Hassle out of HasselbalchLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Characterize an aqueous environment as acidic or basic.
- Explain that pKa is a measure of how easy it is to remove a proton from a molecule.
- Predict ionization state of a molecule at a particular pH based on its pKa (qualitative use of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation).
- Calculate the ratio of protonated/unprotonated forms of ionizable groups depending on chemical characteristics and /or environment pH (quantitative use of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation).
- Apply this knowledge in a medical context.
An Introduction to Eukaryotic Genome Analysis in Non-model Species for Undergraduates: A tutorial from the Genome...Learning ObjectivesAt the end of the activity, students will be able to:
- Explain the steps involved in genome assembly, annotation, and variant detection to other students and instructors.
- Create meaningful visualizations of their data using the integrated genome viewer.
- Use the Linux command line and web-based tools to answer research questions.
- Produce annotated genomes and call variants from raw sequencing reads in non-model species.
Sequence Similarity: An inquiry based and "under the hood" approach for incorporating molecular sequence...Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
- Define similarity in a non-biological and biological sense when provided with two strings of letters.
- Quantify the similarity between two gene/protein sequences.
- Explain how a substitution matrix is used to quantify similarity.
- Calculate amino acid similarity scores using a scoring matrix.
- Demonstrate how to access genomic data (e.g., from NCBI nucleotide and protein databases).
- Demonstrate how to use bioinformatics tools to analyze genomic data (e.g., BLASTP), explain a simplified BLAST search algorithm including how similarity is used to perform a BLAST search, and how to evaluate the results of a BLAST search.
- Create a nearest-neighbor distance matrix.
- Create a multiple sequence alignment using a nearest-neighbor distance matrix and a phylogram based on similarity of amino acid sequences.
- Use appropriate bioinformatics sequence alignment tools to investigate a biological question.
Teaching RNAseq at Undergraduate Institutions: A tutorial and R package from the Genome Consortium for Active TeachingLearning Objectives
- From raw RNAseq data, run a basic analysis culminating in a list of differentially expressed genes.
- Explain and evaluate statistical tests in RNAseq data. Specifically, given the output of a particular test, students should be able to interpret and explain the result.
- Use the Linux command line to complete specified objectives in an RNAseq workflow.
- Generate meaningful visualizations of results from new data in R.
- (In addition, each chapter of this lesson plan contains more specific learning objectives, such as “Students will demonstrate their ability to map reads to a reference.”)
A CURE-based approach to teaching genomics using mitochondrial genomesLearning Objectives
- Install the appropriate programs such as Putty and WinSCP.
- Navigate NCBI's website including their different BLAST programs (e.g., blastn, tblastx, blastp and blastx)
- Use command-line BLAST to identify mitochondrial contigs within a whole genome assembly
- Filter the desired sequence (using grep) and move the assembled mitochondrial genome onto your own computer (using FTP or SCP)
- Error-correct contigs (bwa mem, samtools tview), connect and circularize organellar contigs (extending from filtered reads)
- Transform assembled sequences into annotated genomes
- Orient to canonical start locations in the mitochondrial genome (cox1)
- Identify the boundaries of all coding components of the mitochondrial genome using BLAST, including: Protein coding genes (BLASTx and tBLASTX), tRNAs (proprietary programs such as tRNAscan), rRNAs (BLASTn, Chlorobox), ORFs (NCBI's ORFFinder)
- Deposit annotation onto genome repository (NCBI)
- Update CV/resume to reflect bioinformatics skills learned in this lesson
Exploration of the Human Genome by Investigation of Personalized SNPsLearning ObjectivesStudents successfully completing this lesson will be able to:
- Effectively use the bioinformatics databases (SNPedia, the UCSC Genome Browser, and NCBI) to explore SNPs of interest within the human genome.
- Identify three health-related SNPs of personal interest and use the UCSC Genome Browser to define their precise chromosomal locations and determine whether they lie within a gene or are intergenic.
- Establish a list of all genome-wide association studies correlated with a particular health-related SNP.
- Predict which model organism would be most appropriate for conducting further research on a human disease.
Inexpensive Cell Migration Inquiry Lab using ZebrafishLearning ObjectivesStudents will:
- formulate a hypothesis and design an experiment with the proper controls.
- describe the steps involved in the zebrafish wounding assay (treating zebrafish embryos with drugs or control substances, wounding the embryo, staining the embryo, and counting neutrophils near the wound).
- summarize results into a figure and write a descriptive figure legend.
- perform appropriate statistical analysis.
- interpret results in a discussion that draws connections between the cytoskeleton and cell migration.
- put data into context by appropriately using information from journal articles in the introduction and discussion of a lab report.
Investigating the Function of a Transport Protein: Where is ABCB6 Located in Human Cells?Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this activity students will be able to:
- describe the use of two common research techniques for studying proteins: SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis.
- determine a protein’s subcellular location based on results from: 1) immunoblotting after differential centrifugation, and 2) immunofluorescence microscopy.
- analyze protein localization data based on the limitations of differential centrifugation and immunofluorescence microscopy.
Using Yeast to Make Scientists: A Six-Week Student-Driven Research Project for the Cell Biology LaboratoryLearning Objectives
- Learn about basic S. cerevisiae biology
- Use sterile technique
- Perform a yeast viability assay
- Use a spectrophotometer to measure growth of S. cerevisiae
- Perform a literature search
- Calculate concentrations of chemicals appropriate for S. cerevisiae
- Generate S. cerevisiae growth curves
- Troubleshoot experimental difficulties
- Perform statistical analysis
- Present findings to an audience
Make It Stick: Teaching Gene Targeting with Ribbons and FastenersLearning Objectives
- Students will be able to design targeting constructs.
- Students will be able to predict changes to the gene locus after homologous recombination.
- Students will be able to design experiments to answer a biological question (e.g., "Design an experiment to test if the expression of gene X is necessary for limb development").
Differential Gene Expression during Xenopus laevis DevelopmentLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- identify different stages of Xenopus development
- contrast the strengths and limitations of the Xenopus model organism
- explain the process and purpose of in situ hybridization
- compare gene expression patterns from different germ layers or organ domains
- compare gene expression patterns from different developmental stages
Understanding Protein Domains: A Modular ApproachLearning Objectives
- Students will be able to compare protein sequences and identify conserved regions and putative domains.
- Students will be able to obtain, examine, and compare structural models of protein domains.
- Students will be able to interpret data on protein interactions (in vitro pull-down and in vitro and in vivo functional assays)
- Students will be able to propose experiments to test protein interactions.
A first lesson in mathematical modeling for biologists: RocsLearning Objectives
- Systematically develop a functioning, discrete, single-species model of an exponentially-growing or -declining population.
- Use the model to recommend appropriate action for population management.
- Communicate model output and recommendations to non-expert audiences.
- Generate a collaborative work product that most individuals could not generate on their own, given time and resource constraints.
Using Structured Decision Making to Explore Complex Environmental IssuesLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Describe the process, challenges, and benefits of structured decision making for natural resource management decisions.
- Explain and reflect on the role of science and scientists in structured decision making and how those roles interact and compare to the roles of other stakeholders.
- Assess scientific evidence for a given management or policy action to resolve an environmental issue.
Air Quality Data Mining: Mining the US EPA AirData website for student-led evaluation of air quality issuesLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Describe various parameters of air quality that can negatively impact human health, list priority air pollutants, and interpret the EPA Air Quality Index as it relates to human health.
- Identify an air quality problem that varies on spatial and/or temporal scales that can be addressed using publicly available U.S. EPA air data.
- Collect appropriate U.S. EPA Airdata information needed to answer that/those questions, using the U.S. EPA Airdata website data mining tools.
- Analyze the data as needed to address or answer their question(s).
- Interpret data and draw conclusions regarding air quality levels and/or impacts on human and public health.
- Communicate results in the form of a scientific paper.
Using computational molecular modeling software to demonstrate how DNA mutations cause phenotypesLearning ObjectivesStudents successfully completing this lesson will:
- Practice basic molecular biology laboratory skills such as DNA isolation, PCR, and gel electrophoresis.
- Gather and analyze quantitative and qualitative scientific data and present it in figures.
- Use bioinformatics to analyze DNA sequences and obtain protein sequences for molecular modeling.
- Make and analyze three-dimensional (3-D) protein models using molecular modeling software.
- Write a laboratory report using the collected data to explain how mutations in the DNA cause changes in protein structure/function which lead to mutant phenotypes.
Discovering Prokaryotic Gene Regulation with Simulations of the trp OperonLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Perturb and interpret simulations of the trp operon.
- Define how simulation results relate to cellular events.
- Describe the biological role of the trp operon.
- Describe cellular mechanisms regulating the trp operon.
- Explain mechanistically how changes in the extracellular environment affect the trp operon.
- Define the impact of mutations on trp operon expression and regulation.
Using QIIME to Interpret Environmental Microbial Communities in an Upper Level Metagenomics CourseLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- list and perform the steps of sequence processing and taxonomic inference.
- interpret microbial community diversity from metagenomic sequence datasets.
- compare microbial diversity within and between samples or treatments.
Furry with a chance of evolution: Exploring genetic drift with tuco-tucosLearning Objectives
- Students will be able to explain how genetic drift leads to allelic changes over generations.
- Students will be able to demonstrate that sampling error can affect every generation, which can result in random changes in allelic frequency.
- Students will be able to explore and evaluate the effect of population size on the strength of genetic drift.
- Students will be able to analyze quantitative data associated with genetic drift.
Casting a Wide Net via Case Studies: Educating across the undergraduate to medical school continuum in the biological...Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this lesson, the student should be able to:
- Consider the potential advantages and disadvantages of widespread use of whole genome sequencing and direct-to-consumer genetic testing.
- Explore the critical need to maintain privacy of individual genetic test results to protect patient interests.
- Dissect the nuances of reporting whole genome sequencing results.
- Recognize the economic ramifications of precision medicine strategies.
- Formulate a deeper understanding of the ethical dimensions of emerging genetic testing technologies.
Exploring the March to Mars Using 3D Print ModelsLearning Objectives
- Students will be able to describe the major aspects of the Mars Curiosity Rover missions.
- Students will be able to synthesize information learned from a classroom jigsaw activity on the Mars Curiosity Rover missions.
- Students will be able to work in teams to plan a future manned mission to Mars.
- Students will be able to summarize their reports to the class.
Sex-specific differences in Meiosis: Real-world applicationsLearning ObjectivesAfter completion of the lesson students will be able to:
- Describe the differences between female and male meiosis.
- Interpret graphical data to make decisions relevant to medical practices.
- Develop a hypothesis that explains the difference in incidence of aneuploidy in gametes between males and females.
Does it pose a threat? Investigating the impact of Bt corn on monarch butterfliesLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Apply genetics concepts to a relevant case study of Bt corn and monarch butterflies
- Read figures and text from primary literature
- Identify claims presented in scientific studies
- Evaluate data presented in scientific studies
- Critically reason using data
- Evaluate the consequences of GM technology on non-target organisms
- Communicate scientific data orally
Teaching students to read, interpret, and write about scientific research: A press release assignment in a large, lower...Learning ObjectivesStudents will:
- interpret the main conclusions and their supporting evidence in a primary research article.
- concisely communicate the significance of scientific findings to an educated nonspecialist audience.
- identify the components of a primary research article and the components of the "inverted pyramid" press release structure.
- identify the central figure in a primary research paper and describe its key finding.
- demonstrate an understanding of intellectual property by giving appropriate credit to other people's original work.
Why do Some People Inherit a Predisposition to Cancer? A small group activity on cancer geneticsLearning ObjectivesAt the end of this activity, we expect students will be able to:
- Use family pedigrees and additional genetic information to determine inheritance patterns for hereditary forms of cancer
- Explain why a person with or without cancer can pass on a mutant allele to the next generation and how that impacts probability calculations
- Distinguish between proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes
A Short Laboratory Module to Help Infuse Metacognition during an Introductory Course-based Research ExperienceLearning Objectives
- Students will be able to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of data.
- Students will be able to employ prior knowledge in formulating a biological research question or hypothesis.
- Students will be able to distinguish a research question from a testable hypothesis.
- Students will recognize that the following are essential elements in experimental design: identifying gaps in prior knowledge, picking an appropriate approach (ex. experimental tools and controls) for testing a hypothesis, and reproducibility and repeatability.
- Students will be able to identify appropriate experimental tools, approaches and controls to use in testing a hypothesis.
- Students will be able to accurately explain why an experimental approach they have selected is a good choice for testing a particular hypothesis.
- Students will be able to discuss whether experimental outcomes support or fail to support a particular hypothesis, and in the case of the latter, discuss possible reasons why.
Cutthroat trout in Colorado: A case study connecting evolution and conservationLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- interpret figures such as maps, phylogenies, STRUCTURE plots, and networks for species delimitation
- identify sources of uncertainty and disagreement in real data sets
- propose research to address or remedy uncertainty
- construct an evidence-based argument for the management of a rare taxon
Building Trees: Introducing evolutionary concepts by exploring Crassulaceae phylogeny and biogeographyLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Estimate phylogenetic trees using diverse data types and phylogenetic models.
- Correctly make inferences about evolutionary history and relatedness from the tree diagrams obtained.
- Use selected computer programs for phylogenetic analysis.
- Use bootstrapping to assess the statistical support for a phylogeny.
- Use phylogenetic data to construct, compare, and evaluate the role of geologic processes in shaping the historical and current geographic distributions of a group of organisms.
Cell Signaling Pathways - a Case Study ApproachLearning Objectives
- Use knowledge of positive and negative regulation of signaling pathways to predict the outcome of genetic modifications or pharmaceutical manipulation.
- From phenotypic data, predict whether a mutation is in a coding or a regulatory region of a gene involved in signaling.
- Use data, combined with knowledge of pathways, to make reasonable predictions about the genetic basis of altered signaling pathways.
- Interpret and use pathway diagrams.
- Synthesize information by applying prior knowledge on gene expression when considering congenital syndromes.
Bad Science: Exploring the unethical research behind a putative memory supplementLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- create criteria for evaluating information that is touted as scientific.
- apply those criteria to evaluate the claim that Prevagen® enhances memory.
- identify the misleading tactics used on the Prevagen® website and in their self-published reporting.
- decide whether to recommend taking Prevagen® and explain their decisions.
Meiosis: A Play in Three Acts, Starring DNA SequenceLearning Objectives
- Students will be able to identify sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes at different stages of meiosis.
- Students will be able to identify haploid and diploid cells, whether or not the chromosomes are replicated.
- Students will be able to explain why homologous chromosomes must pair during meiosis.
- Students will be able to relate DNA sequence similarity to chromosomal structures.
- Students will be able to identify crossing over as the key to proper pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
- Students will be able to predict the outcomes of meiosis for a particular individual or cell.
Why Meiosis Matters: The case of the fatherless snakeLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Compare and contrast the process and outcomes of mitosis & meiosis
- Predict consequences of abnormal meiosis including
- The potential genotype and/or phenotypes of offspring produced when meiosis does not occur properly
- The stage(s) of meiosis that could have been abnormal given an offspring’s genotype and/or phenotype
CRISPR/Cas9 in yeast: a multi-week laboratory exercise for undergraduate studentsLearning ObjectivesWeek 1: CRISPR design
- Locate the coding sequence, flanking sequence, protein product, and characteristics of a given gene from the Saccharomyces Genome Database (https://www.yeastgenome.org/).
- Design and defend the design of guide RNA and single stranded template for DNA repair in CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing studies to generate Saccharomyces cerevisiae auxotrophic mutants.
- Describe the qualities of the vector, pML104, that allow replication and selection in bacteria and yeast as well as allow expression of necessary factors in CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, including Cas9 and sgRNA.
- Describe the rationale of and perform procedures necessary for cloning a small cassette (i.e., sgRNA gene) into a vector (i.e., pML104) including; restriction digest, annealing of DNA strands, removal of 5’ phosphates, ligation, and transformation.
- Recognize and design appropriate controls for cloning procedures such as ligation and transformation.
- Describe the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including the rationale for essential components of a reaction mixture and thermal-cycling conditions.
- Locate the binding sites of and design primers for PCR, then report the expected size of the amplification product.
- Describe and perform isolation of plasmid DNA from E. coli.
- Describe the rationale for and perform procedures to transform yeast, including the essential components of a transformation mixture and conditions necessary for transformation.
- Describe the basic conditions required for cultivating yeast.
- Describe the rationale for and perform agarose gel electrophoresis of a given size of DNA.
- Analyze DNA separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, including size estimation.
- Recognize and describe the qualities of a template for DNA repair that allows efficient DNA repair.
- Design an experiment to determine auxotrophic phenotypes.
- Predict the outcome of multi-step experiments.
- Recognize and describe conditions necessary for growth of E. coli and S. cerevisiae.
- Qualitatively and quantitatively analyze scientific data from scientific experiments, including bacterial and yeast transformation, agarose gel electrophoresis, extraction of plasmid DNA from bacteria, PCR, and auxotroph phenotypic analysis.
- Communicate science to peers through maintenance of a laboratory notebook, verbal communication with group members, and writing of a formal laboratory report written in a format acceptable for journal publication.
- Troubleshoot scientific protocols by identifying procedures that are prone to error, comparing recommended protocols to actual procedure, and using positive and negative controls to narrow the location of a potential error.
- Communicate specific potential or actual uses of CRISPR/Cas9 in science and/or medicine.
- Use various bioinformatics approaches to analyze macromolecular primary sequence and structure.
- Illustrate how DNA is replicated and genes are transmitted from one generation to the next in multiple types of organisms including bacteria, eukaryotes, viruses, and retroviruses.
- Define what a genome consists of and how the information in various genes and other sequence classes within each genome are used to store and express genetic information.
- Explain the meaning of ploidy (haploid, diploid, aneuploid etc.) and how it relates to the number of homologues of each chromosome.
- Predict the effects of mutations on the activity, structure, or stability of a protein and design appropriate experiments to assess the effects of mutations.
- Predict the growth behavior of microbes based on their growth conditions, e.g., temperature, available nutrient, aeration level, etc.
- Discuss the benefits of specific tools of modern biotechnology that are derived from naturally occurring microbes (e.g. cloning vectors, restriction enzymes, Taq polymerase, etc.)
- Accurately prepare and use reagents and perform experiments.
- When presented with an observation, develop a testable and falsifiable hypothesis.
- When provided with a hypothesis, identify the appropriate experimental observations and controllable variables.
The Case of the Missing Strawberries: RFLP analysisLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Describe the relationship of cells, chromosomes, and DNA.
- Isolate DNA from strawberries.
- Digest DNA with restriction enzymes.
- Perform gel electrophoresis.
- Design an experiment to compare DNAs by RFLP analysis.
- Predict results of RFLP analysis.
- Interpret results of RFLP analysis.
- Use appropriate safety procedures in the lab.