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• ### The Leaky Neuron: Understanding synaptic integration using an analogy involving leaky cups

Learning Objectives
Students will able to:
• compare and contrast spatial and temporal summation in terms of the number of presynaptic events and the timing of these events
• predict the relative contribution to reaching threshold and firing an action potential as a function of distance from the axon hillock
• predict how the frequency of incoming presynaptic action potentials effects the success of temporal summation of resultant postsynaptic potentials
• ### Dynamic Daphnia: An inquiry-based research experience in ecology that teaches the scientific process to first-year...

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Construct written predictions about 1 factor experiments.
• Interpret simple (2 variables) figures.
• Construct simple (2 variables) figures from data.
• Design simple 1 factor experiments with appropriate controls.
• Demonstrate proper use of standard laboratory items, including a two-stop pipette, stereomicroscope, and laboratory notebook.
• Calculate means and standard deviations.
• Given some scaffolding (instructions), select the correct statistical test for a data set, be able to run a t-test, ANOVA, chi-squared test, and linear regression in Microsoft Excel, and be able to correctly interpret their results.
• Construct and present a scientific poster.
• ### Learning to Pipet Correctly by Pipetting Incorrectly?

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to use analytical balances and micropipettes.
• Students will be able to calculate averages and standard deviations.
• Students will be able to use t-tests to compare two independent samples.
• Students will be able to justify accepting or rejecting a null hypothesis based on an interpretation of p-values.
• Students will learn to use spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel and/or Google Sheets
• Students will be able to explain how pipetting incorrectly leads to errors.
• ### Building Trees: Introducing evolutionary concepts by exploring Crassulaceae phylogeny and biogeography

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Estimate phylogenetic trees using diverse data types and phylogenetic models.
• Correctly make inferences about evolutionary history and relatedness from the tree diagrams obtained.
• Use selected computer programs for phylogenetic analysis.
• Use bootstrapping to assess the statistical support for a phylogeny.
• Use phylogenetic data to construct, compare, and evaluate the role of geologic processes in shaping the historical and current geographic distributions of a group of organisms.
• ### A Short Laboratory Module to Help Infuse Metacognition during an Introductory Course-based Research Experience

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of data.
• Students will be able to employ prior knowledge in formulating a biological research question or hypothesis.
• Students will be able to distinguish a research question from a testable hypothesis.
• Students will recognize that the following are essential elements in experimental design: identifying gaps in prior knowledge, picking an appropriate approach (ex. experimental tools and controls) for testing a hypothesis, and reproducibility and repeatability.
• Students will be able to identify appropriate experimental tools, approaches and controls to use in testing a hypothesis.
• Students will be able to accurately explain why an experimental approach they have selected is a good choice for testing a particular hypothesis.
• Students will be able to discuss whether experimental outcomes support or fail to support a particular hypothesis, and in the case of the latter, discuss possible reasons why.
• ### Authentic Ecological Inquiries Using BearCam Archives

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• conduct an authentic ecological inquiry including
• generate a testable hypothesis based on observations,
• collect and analyze data following the design, and
• interpret results and draw conclusions based on the evidence.
• write a research report with appropriate structure and style.
• evaluate the quality of inquiry reports using a rubric.
• conduct peer review to evaluate and provide feedback to others' work.
• revise the inquiry report based on peer feedback and self-assessment.
• ### A virtual laboratory on cell division using a publicly-available image database

Learning Objectives
• Students will name and describe the salient features and cellular tasks for each stage of cell division.
• Students will predict the relative durations of the stages of cell division using prior knowledge and facts from assigned readings.
• Students will describe the relationship between duration of each stage of cell division and the frequency of cells present in each stage of cell division counted in a random sample of images of pluripotent stem cells.
• Students will identify the stages of cell division present in research-quality images of human pluripotent stem cells in various stages of cell division.
• Students will quantify, analyze and summarize data on the prevalence of cells at different stages of cell division in randomly sampled cell populations.
• Students will use data to reflect on and revise predictions.
• ### Linking Genotype to Phenotype: The Effect of a Mutation in Gibberellic Acid Production on Plant Germination

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• identify when germination occurs.
• score germination in the presence and absence of GA to construct graphs of collated class data of wild-type and mutant specimens.
• identify the genotype of an unknown sample based on the analysis of their graphical data.
• organize data and perform quantitative data analysis.
• explain the importance of GA for plant germination.
• connect the inheritance of a mutation with the observed phenotype.
• ### A new approach to course-based research using a hermit crab-hydrozoan symbiosis

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• define different types of symbiotic interactions, with specific examples.
• summarize and critically evaluate contemporary primary literature relevant to ecological symbioses, in particular that between hermit crabs and Hydractinia spp.
• articulate a question, based on observations of a natural phenomenon (in this example, the hermit crab-Hydractinia interaction).
• articulate a testable hypothesis, based on their own observations and read of the literature.
• design appropriate experimental or observational studies to address their hypotheses.
• collect and interpret data in light of their hypotheses.
• problem-solve and troubleshoot issues that arise during their experiment.
• communicate scientific results, both orally and in written form.
• ### Using Synthetic Biology and pClone Red for Authentic Research on Promoter Function: Genetics (analyzing mutant...

Learning Objectives
• Describe how cells can produce proteins at the right time and correct amount.
• Diagram a bacterial promoter with −35 and −10 elements and the transcription start site.
• Describe how mutational analysis can be used to study promoter sequence requirements.
• Develop a promoter mutation hypothesis and design an experiment to test it.
• Successfully and safely manipulate DNA and Escherichia coli for ligation and transformation experiments.
• Design an experiment to verify a mutated promoter has been cloned into a destination vector.
• Design an experiment to measure the strength of a promoter.
• Analyze data showing reporter protein produced and use the data to assess promoter strength.
• Define type IIs restriction enzymes.
• Distinguish between type II and type IIs restriction enzymes.
• Explain how Golden Gate Assembly (GGA) works.
• Measure the relative strength of a promoter compared to a standard promoter.
• ### Quantifying and Visualizing Campus Tree Phenology

Learning Objectives
The Learning Objectives of this lesson span across the entire semester.
• Observe and collect information on phenological changes in local trees.
• Become familiar with a database and how to work with large datasets.
• Analyze and visualize data from the database to test their hypotheses and questions.
• Develop a research proposal including empirically-driven questions and hypotheses.
• Synthesize the results of their analysis in the context of plant biodiversity and local environmental conditions.
• ### Gotcha! Which fly trap is the best? An introduction to experimental data collection and analysis

Learning Objectives
Students will:
• design and execute an experiment
• collect, organize, and summarize data
• analyze and interpret data and make inferences
• ### Knowing your own: A classroom case study using the scientific method to investigate how birds learn to recognize their...

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to identify and describe the steps of the scientific method.
• Students will be able to develop hypotheses and predictions.
• Students will be able to construct and interpret bar graphs based on data and predictions.
• Students will be able to draw conclusions from data presented in graphical form.
• ### A flexible, multi-week approach to plant biology - How will plants respond to higher levels of CO2?

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Apply findings from each week's lesson to make predictions and informed hypotheses about the next week's lesson.
• Keep a detailed laboratory notebook.
• Write and peer-edit the sections of a scientific paper, and collaboratively write an entire lab report in the form of a scientific research paper.
• Search for, find, and read scientific research papers.
• Work together as a team to conduct experiments.
• Connect findings and ideas from each week's lesson to get a broader understanding of how plants will respond to higher levels of CO2 (e.g., stomatal density, photosynthetic/respiratory rates, foliar protein concentrations, growth, and resource allocation).
Note: Additional, more specific objectives are included with each of the four lessons (Supporting Files S1-S4)
• ### CURE-all: Large Scale Implementation of Authentic DNA Barcoding Research into First-Year Biology Curriculum

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to: Week 1-4: Fundamentals of Science and Biology
• List the major processes involved in scientific discovery
• List the different types of scientific studies and which types can establish causation
• Design experiments with appropriate controls
• Create and evaluate phylogenetic trees
• Define taxonomy and phylogeny and explain their relationship to each other
• Explain DNA sequence divergence and how it applies to evolutionary relationships and DNA barcoding
Week 5-6: Ecology
• Define and measure biodiversity and explain its importance
• Catalog organisms using the morphospecies concept
• Geographically map organisms using smartphones and an online mapping program
• Calculate metrics of species diversity using spreadsheet software
• Use spreadsheet software to quantify and graph biodiversity at forest edges vs. interiors
• Write a formal lab report
Week 7-11: Cellular and Molecular Biology
• Extract, amplify, visualize and sequence DNA using standard molecular techniques (PCR, gel electrophoresis, Sanger sequencing)
• Explain how DNA extraction, PCR, gel electrophoresis, and Sanger sequencing work at the molecular level
Week 12-13: Bioinformatics
• Trim and assemble raw DNA sequence data
• Taxonomically identify DNA sequences isolated from unknown organisms using BLAST
• Visualize sequence data relationships using sequence alignments and gene-based phylogenetic trees
• Map and report data in a publicly available online database
• Share data in a formal scientific poster
• ### A Close-Up Look at PCR

Learning Objectives
At the end of this lesson students will be able to...
• Describe the role of a primer in PCR
• Predict sequence and length of PCR product based on primer sequences
• Recognize that primers are incorporated into the final PCR products and explain why
• Identify covalent and hydrogen bonds formed and broken during PCR
• Predict the structure of PCR products after each cycle of the reaction
• Explain why amplification proceeds exponentially
• ### CRISPR/Cas9 in yeast: a multi-week laboratory exercise for undergraduate students

Learning Objectives
Week 1: CRISPR design
• Locate the coding sequence, flanking sequence, protein product, and characteristics of a given gene from the Saccharomyces Genome Database (https://www.yeastgenome.org/).
• Design and defend the design of guide RNA and single stranded template for DNA repair in CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing studies to generate Saccharomyces cerevisiae auxotrophic mutants.
Week 3-4: Cloning
• Describe the qualities of the vector, pML104, that allow replication and selection in bacteria and yeast as well as allow expression of necessary factors in CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, including Cas9 and sgRNA.
• Describe the rationale of and perform procedures necessary for cloning a small cassette (i.e., sgRNA gene) into a vector (i.e., pML104) including; restriction digest, annealing of DNA strands, removal of 5’ phosphates, ligation, and transformation.
• Recognize and design appropriate controls for cloning procedures such as ligation and transformation.
Week 5: Screening clones
• Describe the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including the rationale for essential components of a reaction mixture and thermal-cycling conditions.
• Locate the binding sites of and design primers for PCR, then report the expected size of the amplification product.
• Describe and perform isolation of plasmid DNA from E. coli.
Week 6: Selection of clones and transformation of yeast
• Describe the rationale for and perform procedures to transform yeast, including the essential components of a transformation mixture and conditions necessary for transformation.
• Describe the basic conditions required for cultivating yeast.
• Describe the rationale for and perform agarose gel electrophoresis of a given size of DNA.
• Analyze DNA separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, including size estimation.
• Recognize and describe the qualities of a template for DNA repair that allows efficient DNA repair.
Week 7: Phenotyping
• Design an experiment to determine auxotrophic phenotypes.
• Predict the outcome of multi-step experiments.
Multiweek
• Recognize and describe conditions necessary for growth of E. coli and S. cerevisiae.
• Qualitatively and quantitatively analyze scientific data from scientific experiments, including bacterial and yeast transformation, agarose gel electrophoresis, extraction of plasmid DNA from bacteria, PCR, and auxotroph phenotypic analysis.
• Communicate science to peers through maintenance of a laboratory notebook, verbal communication with group members, and writing of a formal laboratory report written in a format acceptable for journal publication.
• Troubleshoot scientific protocols by identifying procedures that are prone to error, comparing recommended protocols to actual procedure, and using positive and negative controls to narrow the location of a potential error.
• Communicate specific potential or actual uses of CRISPR/Cas9 in science and/or medicine.
Alignment with Society-Generated Learning Objectives - From Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Genetics Learning Frameworks
• Use various bioinformatics approaches to analyze macromolecular primary sequence and structure.
• Illustrate how DNA is replicated and genes are transmitted from one generation to the next in multiple types of organisms including bacteria, eukaryotes, viruses, and retroviruses.
• Define what a genome consists of and how the information in various genes and other sequence classes within each genome are used to store and express genetic information.
• Explain the meaning of ploidy (haploid, diploid, aneuploid etc.) and how it relates to the number of homologues of each chromosome.
• Predict the effects of mutations on the activity, structure, or stability of a protein and design appropriate experiments to assess the effects of mutations.
• Predict the growth behavior of microbes based on their growth conditions, e.g., temperature, available nutrient, aeration level, etc.
• Discuss the benefits of specific tools of modern biotechnology that are derived from naturally occurring microbes (e.g. cloning vectors, restriction enzymes, Taq polymerase, etc.)
• Accurately prepare and use reagents and perform experiments.
• When presented with an observation, develop a testable and falsifiable hypothesis.
• When provided with a hypothesis, identify the appropriate experimental observations and controllable variables.