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• ### Your Tax Dollars at Work: A mock grant writing experience centered on scientific process skills

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Propose a testable, novel question contributing to a biological field of study.
• Formulate a study rationale.
• Describe relevant background information on a topic using the primary literature.
• Choose appropriate scientific, mathematical, and statistical methods to analyze a research question.
• Determine the financial costs of a research project.
• Present a proposal for peer review and compose a constructive peer review.
• Collaborate as a member of a scientific team.
• Articulate the review criteria and process used in NSF-style proposal review.
• ### A first lesson in mathematical modeling for biologists: Rocs

Learning Objectives
• Systematically develop a functioning, discrete, single-species model of an exponentially-growing or -declining population.
• Use the model to recommend appropriate action for population management.
• Communicate model output and recommendations to non-expert audiences.
• Generate a collaborative work product that most individuals could not generate on their own, given time and resource constraints.

Learning Objectives
Students will:
• Articulate testable hypotheses. (Lab 8, final presentation/paper, in-class exercises)
• Analyze data to determine the level of support for articulated hypotheses. (Labs 4-7, final presentation/paper)
• Identify multiple species of plants in the field quickly and accurately. (Labs 2-3, field trip)
• Measure environmental variables and sample vegetation in the field. (Labs 2-3, field trip)
• Analyze soil samples using a variety of low-tech lab techniques. (Open labs after field trip)
• Use multiple statistical techniques to analyze data for patterns. (Labs 4-8, final presentation/paper)
• Interpret statistical analyses to distinguish between strong and weak interactions in a biological system. (Labs 4-7, final presentation/paper)
• Develop and present a conference-style presentation in a public forum. (Lab 8, final presentation/paper)
• Write a publication-ready research paper communicating findings and displaying data. (Lab 8, final presentation/paper)
• ### The ACTN3 Polymorphism: Applications in Genetics and Physiology Teaching Laboratories

Learning Objectives
1. Test hypotheses related to the role of ACTN3 in skeletal muscle function.
2. Explain how polymorphic variants of the ACTN3 gene affect protein structure and function.
3. List and explain the differences between fast twitch and slow twitch muscle fibers.
4. List and explain possible roles of the ACTN3 protein in skeletal muscle function.
5. Find and analyze relevant scientific publications about the relationship between ACTN3 genotype and muscle function.
6. Formulate hypotheses related to the relationship between ACTN3 genotype and skeletal muscle function.
7. Design experiments to test hypotheses about the role of ACTN3 in skeletal muscle function.
8. Statistically analyze experimental results using relevant software.
9. Present experimental results in writing.
• ### A Short Laboratory Module to Help Infuse Metacognition during an Introductory Course-based Research Experience

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of data.
• Students will be able to employ prior knowledge in formulating a biological research question or hypothesis.
• Students will be able to distinguish a research question from a testable hypothesis.
• Students will recognize that the following are essential elements in experimental design: identifying gaps in prior knowledge, picking an appropriate approach (ex. experimental tools and controls) for testing a hypothesis, and reproducibility and repeatability.
• Students will be able to identify appropriate experimental tools, approaches and controls to use in testing a hypothesis.
• Students will be able to accurately explain why an experimental approach they have selected is a good choice for testing a particular hypothesis.
• Students will be able to discuss whether experimental outcomes support or fail to support a particular hypothesis, and in the case of the latter, discuss possible reasons why.
• ### What do Bone and Silly Putty® have in Common?: A Lesson on Bone Viscoelasticity

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to explain how the anatomical structure of long bones relates to their function.
• Students will be able to define viscoelasticity, hysteresis, anisotropy, stiffness, strength, ductility, and toughness.
• Students will be able to identify the elastic and plastic regions of a stress-strain curve. They will be able to correlate each phase of the stress-strain curve with physical changes to bone.
• Students will be able to predict how a bone would respond to changes in the magnitude of an applied force, and to variations in the speed or angle at which a force is applied.
• Students will be able to determine the reason(s) why bone injuries occur more frequently during athletic events than during normal everyday use.
• ### Evaluating the Quick Fix: Weight Loss Drugs and Cellular Respiration

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to explain how the energy from sugars is transformed into ATP via cellular respiration.
• Students will be able to predict an outcome if there is a perturbation in the cellular respiration pathway.
• Students will be able to state and evaluate a hypothesis.
• Students will be able to interpret data from a graph, and use that data to make inferences about the action of a drug.
• ### Using Synthetic Biology and pClone Red for Authentic Research on Promoter Function: Genetics (analyzing mutant...

Learning Objectives
• Describe how cells can produce proteins at the right time and correct amount.
• Diagram a bacterial promoter with −35 and −10 elements and the transcription start site.
• Describe how mutational analysis can be used to study promoter sequence requirements.
• Develop a promoter mutation hypothesis and design an experiment to test it.
• Successfully and safely manipulate DNA and Escherichia coli for ligation and transformation experiments.
• Design an experiment to verify a mutated promoter has been cloned into a destination vector.
• Design an experiment to measure the strength of a promoter.
• Analyze data showing reporter protein produced and use the data to assess promoter strength.
• Define type IIs restriction enzymes.
• Distinguish between type II and type IIs restriction enzymes.
• Explain how Golden Gate Assembly (GGA) works.
• Measure the relative strength of a promoter compared to a standard promoter.
• ### Using Synthetic Biology and pClone Red for Authentic Research on Promoter Function: Introductory Biology (identifying...

Learning Objectives
• Describe how cells can produce proteins at the right time and correct amount.
• Diagram how a repressor works to reduce transcription.
• Diagram how an activator works to increase transcription.
• Identify a new promoter from literature and design a method to clone it and test its function.
• Successfully and safely manipulate DNA and Escherichia coli for ligation and transformation experiments.
• Design an experiment to verify a new promoter has been cloned into a destination vector.
• Design an experiment to measure the strength of a promoter.
• Analyze data showing reporter protein produced and use the data to assess promoter strength.
• Define type IIs restriction enzymes.
• Distinguish between type II and type IIs restriction enzymes.
• Explain how Golden Gate Assembly (GGA) works.
• Measure the relative strength of a promoter compared to a standard promoter.
• ### Authentic Ecological Inquiries Using BearCam Archives

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• conduct an authentic ecological inquiry including
• generate a testable hypothesis based on observations,
• collect and analyze data following the design, and
• interpret results and draw conclusions based on the evidence.
• write a research report with appropriate structure and style.
• evaluate the quality of inquiry reports using a rubric.
• conduct peer review to evaluate and provide feedback to others' work.
• revise the inquiry report based on peer feedback and self-assessment.
• ### Linking Genotype to Phenotype: The Effect of a Mutation in Gibberellic Acid Production on Plant Germination

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• identify when germination occurs.
• score germination in the presence and absence of GA to construct graphs of collated class data of wild-type and mutant specimens.
• identify the genotype of an unknown sample based on the analysis of their graphical data.
• organize data and perform quantitative data analysis.
• explain the importance of GA for plant germination.
• connect the inheritance of a mutation with the observed phenotype.
• ### Dynamic Daphnia: An inquiry-based research experience in ecology that teaches the scientific process to first-year...

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Construct written predictions about 1 factor experiments.
• Interpret simple (2 variables) figures.
• Construct simple (2 variables) figures from data.
• Design simple 1 factor experiments with appropriate controls.
• Demonstrate proper use of standard laboratory items, including a two-stop pipette, stereomicroscope, and laboratory notebook.
• Calculate means and standard deviations.
• Given some scaffolding (instructions), select the correct statistical test for a data set, be able to run a t-test, ANOVA, chi-squared test, and linear regression in Microsoft Excel, and be able to correctly interpret their results.
• Construct and present a scientific poster.
• ### Using Yeast to Make Scientists: A Six-Week Student-Driven Research Project for the Cell Biology Laboratory

Learning Objectives
• Learn about basic S. cerevisiae biology
• Use sterile technique
• Perform a yeast viability assay
• Use a spectrophotometer to measure growth of S. cerevisiae
• Perform a literature search
• Calculate concentrations of chemicals appropriate for S. cerevisiae
• Generate S. cerevisiae growth curves
• Troubleshoot experimental difficulties
• Perform statistical analysis
• Present findings to an audience
• ### Using QIIME to Interpret Environmental Microbial Communities in an Upper Level Metagenomics Course

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• list and perform the steps of sequence processing and taxonomic inference.
• interpret microbial community diversity from metagenomic sequence datasets.
• compare microbial diversity within and between samples or treatments.
• ### A new approach to course-based research using a hermit crab-hydrozoan symbiosis

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• define different types of symbiotic interactions, with specific examples.
• summarize and critically evaluate contemporary primary literature relevant to ecological symbioses, in particular that between hermit crabs and Hydractinia spp.
• articulate a question, based on observations of a natural phenomenon (in this example, the hermit crab-Hydractinia interaction).
• articulate a testable hypothesis, based on their own observations and read of the literature.
• design appropriate experimental or observational studies to address their hypotheses.
• collect and interpret data in light of their hypotheses.
• problem-solve and troubleshoot issues that arise during their experiment.
• communicate scientific results, both orally and in written form.
• ### CURE-all: Large Scale Implementation of Authentic DNA Barcoding Research into First-Year Biology Curriculum

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to: Week 1-4: Fundamentals of Science and Biology
• List the major processes involved in scientific discovery
• List the different types of scientific studies and which types can establish causation
• Design experiments with appropriate controls
• Create and evaluate phylogenetic trees
• Define taxonomy and phylogeny and explain their relationship to each other
• Explain DNA sequence divergence and how it applies to evolutionary relationships and DNA barcoding
Week 5-6: Ecology
• Define and measure biodiversity and explain its importance
• Catalog organisms using the morphospecies concept
• Geographically map organisms using smartphones and an online mapping program
• Calculate metrics of species diversity using spreadsheet software
• Use spreadsheet software to quantify and graph biodiversity at forest edges vs. interiors
• Write a formal lab report
Week 7-11: Cellular and Molecular Biology
• Extract, amplify, visualize and sequence DNA using standard molecular techniques (PCR, gel electrophoresis, Sanger sequencing)
• Explain how DNA extraction, PCR, gel electrophoresis, and Sanger sequencing work at the molecular level
Week 12-13: Bioinformatics
• Trim and assemble raw DNA sequence data
• Taxonomically identify DNA sequences isolated from unknown organisms using BLAST
• Visualize sequence data relationships using sequence alignments and gene-based phylogenetic trees
• Map and report data in a publicly available online database
• Share data in a formal scientific poster
• ### Exploration of the Human Genome by Investigation of Personalized SNPs

Learning Objectives
Students successfully completing this lesson will be able to:
• Effectively use the bioinformatics databases (SNPedia, the UCSC Genome Browser, and NCBI) to explore SNPs of interest within the human genome.
• Identify three health-related SNPs of personal interest and use the UCSC Genome Browser to define their precise chromosomal locations and determine whether they lie within a gene or are intergenic.
• Establish a list of all genome-wide association studies correlated with a particular health-related SNP.
• Predict which model organism would be most appropriate for conducting further research on a human disease.