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The impact of diet and antibiotics on the gut microbiomeLearning ObjectivesAfter completing the exercise, students will be able to:
- Identify several of the nine phyla that contribute to the gut microbiome and name the two predominant ones;
- Describe how diet impacts the gut microbiome and compare the composition of the gut microbiome between different diets;
- Describe how antibiotic treatment impacts the gut microbiome and understand how this leads to infection, for example by Clostridium difficile;
- Trace the response to a change in diet, starting with i) changes in the composition of the microbiome, followed by ii) changes in the bacterial metabolic pathways and the respective excreted metabolic products, resulting in iii) a molecular response in the host intestinal cells, and eventually iv) resulting in human disease;
- Improve their ability to read scientific literature;
- Express themselves orally and in writing;
- Develop team working skill
The Avocado Lab: An Inquiry-Driven Exploration of an Enzymatic Browning ReactionLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- develop a testable research question and supportive hypothesis regarding the browning of damaged avocado flesh caused by the activity of avocado polyphenol oxidase (aPPO).
- design and execute a well-controlled experiment to test aPPO hypotheses.
- evaluate qualitative enzyme activity data.
- create a figure and legend to present qualitative data that tests multiple hypotheses and variables.
- search for and correctly cite primary literature to support or refute hypotheses.
- know the role of reducing reagents, pH, chelators, and temperature in reactions catalyzed by aPPO.
- explain why the effects of salt and detergent differ for aPPO experiments conducted in situ
- (in mashed avocado flesh) as compared to in vitro (on purified protein).
- discuss how substrate and cofactor availability affect aPPO reactions.
- describe how endogenous subcellular organization restricts aPPO reactions in a healthy avocado.
- evaluate food handling practices for fruits expressing PPO.
Casting a Wide Net via Case Studies: Educating across the undergraduate to medical school continuum in the biological...Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this lesson, the student should be able to:
- Consider the potential advantages and disadvantages of widespread use of whole genome sequencing and direct-to-consumer genetic testing.
- Explore the critical need to maintain privacy of individual genetic test results to protect patient interests.
- Dissect the nuances of reporting whole genome sequencing results.
- Recognize the economic ramifications of precision medicine strategies.
- Formulate a deeper understanding of the ethical dimensions of emerging genetic testing technologies.
Bad Science: Exploring the unethical research behind a putative memory supplementLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- create criteria for evaluating information that is touted as scientific.
- apply those criteria to evaluate the claim that Prevagen® enhances memory.
- identify the misleading tactics used on the Prevagen® website and in their self-published reporting.
- decide whether to recommend taking Prevagen® and explain their decisions.
The Leaky Neuron: Understanding synaptic integration using an analogy involving leaky cupsLearning ObjectivesStudents will able to:
- compare and contrast spatial and temporal summation in terms of the number of presynaptic events and the timing of these events
- predict the relative contribution to reaching threshold and firing an action potential as a function of distance from the axon hillock
- predict how the frequency of incoming presynaptic action potentials effects the success of temporal summation of resultant postsynaptic potentials
Discovering Cellular Respiration with Computational Modeling and SimulationsLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Describe how changes in cellular homeostasis affect metabolic intermediates.
- Perturb and interpret a simulation of cellular respiration.
- Describe cellular mechanisms regulating cellular respiration.
- Describe how glucose, oxygen, and coenzymes affect cellular respiration.
- Describe the interconnectedness of cellular respiration.
- Identify and describe the inputs and outputs of cellular respiration, glycolysis, pyruvate processing, citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain.
- Describe how different energy sources are used in cellular respiration.
- Trace carbon through cellular respiration from glucose to carbon dioxide.
Discovering Prokaryotic Gene Regulation with Simulations of the trp OperonLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Perturb and interpret simulations of the trp operon.
- Define how simulation results relate to cellular events.
- Describe the biological role of the trp operon.
- Describe cellular mechanisms regulating the trp operon.
- Explain mechanistically how changes in the extracellular environment affect the trp operon.
- Define the impact of mutations on trp operon expression and regulation.
Building a Model of Tumorigenesis: A small group activity for a cancer biology/cell biology courseLearning ObjectivesAt the end of the activity, students will be able to:
- Analyze data from a retrospective clinical study uncovering genetic alterations in colorectal cancer.
- Draw conclusions about human tumorigenesis using data from a retrospective clinical study.
- Present scientific data in an appropriate and accurate way.
- Discuss why modeling is an important practice of science.
- Create a simple model of the genetic changes associated with a particular human cancer.
Investigating the Function of a Transport Protein: Where is ABCB6 Located in Human Cells?Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this activity students will be able to:
- describe the use of two common research techniques for studying proteins: SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis.
- determine a protein’s subcellular location based on results from: 1) immunoblotting after differential centrifugation, and 2) immunofluorescence microscopy.
- analyze protein localization data based on the limitations of differential centrifugation and immunofluorescence microscopy.
A flexible, multi-week approach to plant biology - How will plants respond to higher levels of CO2?Learning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Apply findings from each week's lesson to make predictions and informed hypotheses about the next week's lesson.
- Keep a detailed laboratory notebook.
- Write and peer-edit the sections of a scientific paper, and collaboratively write an entire lab report in the form of a scientific research paper.
- Search for, find, and read scientific research papers.
- Work together as a team to conduct experiments.
- Connect findings and ideas from each week's lesson to get a broader understanding of how plants will respond to higher levels of CO2 (e.g., stomatal density, photosynthetic/respiratory rates, foliar protein concentrations, growth, and resource allocation).
Teaching epidemiology and principles of infectious disease using popular media and the case of Typhoid MaryLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Describe the reservoirs of infection in humans.
- Distinguish portals of entry and exit.
- Describe how each of the following contributes to bacterial virulence: adhesins, extracellular enzymes, toxins, and antiphagocytic factors.
- Define and distinguish etiology and epidemiology.
- Describe the five typical stages of infectious disease and depict the stages in graphical form.
- Contrast contact, vehicle and vector transmission, biological and mechanical vectors and identify the mode of transmission in a given scenario.
- Differentiate endemic, sporadic, epidemic, and pandemic disease.
- Distinguish descriptive, analytical, and experimental epidemiology.
- Compare and contrast social, economic, and cultural factors impacting health care in the early 1900s and today.
Teaching the Biological Relevance of Chemical Kinetics Using Cold-Blooded Animal BiologyLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Predict the effect of reaction temperature on the rate of a chemical reaction
- Interpret a graph plotted between rate of a chemical reaction and temperature
- Discuss chemical kinetics utilizing case studies of cold-blooded animals
Discovering Prokaryotic Gene Regulation by Building and Investigating a Computational Model of the lac OperonLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- model how the components of the lac operon contribute to gene regulation and expression.
- generate and test predictions using computational modeling and simulations.
- interpret and record graphs displaying simulation results.
- relate simulation results to cellular events.
- describe how changes in environmental glucose and lactose levels impact regulation of the lac operon.
- predict, test, and explain how mutations in specific elements in the lac operon affect their protein product and other elements within the operon.