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  • ACTN3 from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/33/Protein_ACTN3_PDB_1tjt.png

    The ACTN3 Polymorphism: Applications in Genetics and Physiology Teaching Laboratories

    Learning Objectives
    1. Test hypotheses related to the role of ACTN3 in skeletal muscle function.
    2. Explain how polymorphic variants of the ACTN3 gene affect protein structure and function.
    3. List and explain the differences between fast twitch and slow twitch muscle fibers.
    4. List and explain possible roles of the ACTN3 protein in skeletal muscle function.
    5. Find and analyze relevant scientific publications about the relationship between ACTN3 genotype and muscle function.
    6. Formulate hypotheses related to the relationship between ACTN3 genotype and skeletal muscle function.
    7. Design experiments to test hypotheses about the role of ACTN3 in skeletal muscle function.
    8. Statistically analyze experimental results using relevant software.
    9. Present experimental results in writing.
  • ACTN3 from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/33/Protein_ACTN3_PDB_1tjt.png

    The Science Behind the ACTN3 Polymorphism

    Learning Objectives
    This article accompanies the lesson "The ACTN3 Polymorphism: Applications in Genetics and Physiology Teaching Laboratories." Learning objectives for the lesson include:
    1. Test hypotheses related to the role of ACTN3 in skeletal muscle function.
    2. Explain how polymorphic variants of the ACTN3 gene affect protein structure and function.
    3. List and explain the differences between fast twitch and slow twitch muscle fibers.
    4. List and explain possible roles of the ACTN3 protein in skeletal muscle function.
    5. Find and analyze relevant scientific publications about the relationship between ACTN3 genotype and muscle function.
    6. Formulate hypotheses related to the relationship between ACTN3 genotype and skeletal muscle function.
    7. Design experiments to test hypotheses about the role of ACTN3 in skeletal muscle function.
    8. Statistically analyze experimental results using relevant software.
    9. Present experimental results in writing.
  • Hydrozoan polyps on a hermit-crab shell (photo by Tiffany Galush)

    A new approach to course-based research using a hermit crab-hydrozoan symbiosis

    Learning Objectives
    Students will be able to:
    • define different types of symbiotic interactions, with specific examples.
    • summarize and critically evaluate contemporary primary literature relevant to ecological symbioses, in particular that between hermit crabs and Hydractinia spp.
    • articulate a question, based on observations of a natural phenomenon (in this example, the hermit crab-Hydractinia interaction).
    • articulate a testable hypothesis, based on their own observations and read of the literature.
    • design appropriate experimental or observational studies to address their hypotheses.
    • collect and interpret data in light of their hypotheses.
    • problem-solve and troubleshoot issues that arise during their experiment.
    • communicate scientific results, both orally and in written form.
  • Enzymatic avocado browning is driven by polyphenol oxidase. Mashed avocado pulp is bright green but turns dark brown over the course of two hours at room temperature in the presence of air and salt. This reaction can be accelerated or inhibited by more than 20 different testable reagents, allowing students to explore experimental design.

    The Avocado Lab: An Inquiry-Driven Exploration of an Enzymatic Browning Reaction

    Learning Objectives
    Students will be able to:
    • develop a testable research question and supportive hypothesis regarding the browning of damaged avocado flesh caused by the activity of avocado polyphenol oxidase (aPPO).
    • design and execute a well-controlled experiment to test aPPO hypotheses.
    • evaluate qualitative enzyme activity data.
    • create a figure and legend to present qualitative data that tests multiple hypotheses and variables.
    • search for and correctly cite primary literature to support or refute hypotheses.
    • know the role of reducing reagents, pH, chelators, and temperature in reactions catalyzed by aPPO.
    • explain why the effects of salt and detergent differ for aPPO experiments conducted in situ
    • (in mashed avocado flesh) as compared to in vitro (on purified protein).
    • discuss how substrate and cofactor availability affect aPPO reactions.
    • describe how endogenous subcellular organization restricts aPPO reactions in a healthy avocado.
    • evaluate food handling practices for fruits expressing PPO.
  • Sample Student Growth Curve. This image shows a yeast growth curve generated by a student in our lab, superimposed on an image of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Using Yeast to Make Scientists: A Six-Week Student-Driven Research Project for the Cell Biology Laboratory

    Learning Objectives
    • Learn about basic S. cerevisiae biology
    • Use sterile technique
    • Perform a yeast viability assay
    • Use a spectrophotometer to measure growth of S. cerevisiae
    • Perform a literature search
    • Calculate concentrations of chemicals appropriate for S. cerevisiae
    • Generate S. cerevisiae growth curves
    • Troubleshoot experimental difficulties
    • Perform statistical analysis
    • Present findings to an audience