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• ### In-class peer grading of daily quizzes increases feedback opportunities

Learning Objectives
Each of these objectives are illustrated with a succinct slide presentation or other supplemental material available ahead of class time through the course administration system. Learners found it particularly helpful to have video clips that remind them of mathematical manipulations available (in the above example objective c). Students understand that foundational objectives tend to be the focus of the quiz (objectives a-d) and that others will be given more time to work on together in class (objectives e-g), but I don't specify this exactly to reduce temptation that 'gamers' take a shortcut that would impact their group work negatively later on. However, the assignment for a focused graded group activity is posted as well, so it is clear what we are working towards; if desired individuals could prepare ahead of the class.
• ### Air Quality Data Mining: Mining the US EPA AirData website for student-led evaluation of air quality issues

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Describe various parameters of air quality that can negatively impact human health, list priority air pollutants, and interpret the EPA Air Quality Index as it relates to human health.
• Identify an air quality problem that varies on spatial and/or temporal scales that can be addressed using publicly available U.S. EPA air data.
• Collect appropriate U.S. EPA Airdata information needed to answer that/those questions, using the U.S. EPA Airdata website data mining tools.
• Analyze the data as needed to address or answer their question(s).
• Interpret data and draw conclusions regarding air quality levels and/or impacts on human and public health.
• Communicate results in the form of a scientific paper.
• ### Learning to Pipet Correctly by Pipetting Incorrectly?

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to use analytical balances and micropipettes.
• Students will be able to calculate averages and standard deviations.
• Students will be able to use t-tests to compare two independent samples.
• Students will be able to justify accepting or rejecting a null hypothesis based on an interpretation of p-values.
• Students will learn to use spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel and/or Google Sheets
• Students will be able to explain how pipetting incorrectly leads to errors.

Learning Objectives
Students will:
• Articulate testable hypotheses. (Lab 8, final presentation/paper, in-class exercises)
• Analyze data to determine the level of support for articulated hypotheses. (Labs 4-7, final presentation/paper)
• Identify multiple species of plants in the field quickly and accurately. (Labs 2-3, field trip)
• Measure environmental variables and sample vegetation in the field. (Labs 2-3, field trip)
• Analyze soil samples using a variety of low-tech lab techniques. (Open labs after field trip)
• Use multiple statistical techniques to analyze data for patterns. (Labs 4-8, final presentation/paper)
• Interpret statistical analyses to distinguish between strong and weak interactions in a biological system. (Labs 4-7, final presentation/paper)
• Develop and present a conference-style presentation in a public forum. (Lab 8, final presentation/paper)
• Write a publication-ready research paper communicating findings and displaying data. (Lab 8, final presentation/paper)
• ### Using Synthetic Biology and pClone Red for Authentic Research on Promoter Function: Genetics (analyzing mutant...

Learning Objectives
• Describe how cells can produce proteins at the right time and correct amount.
• Diagram a bacterial promoter with −35 and −10 elements and the transcription start site.
• Describe how mutational analysis can be used to study promoter sequence requirements.
• Develop a promoter mutation hypothesis and design an experiment to test it.
• Successfully and safely manipulate DNA and Escherichia coli for ligation and transformation experiments.
• Design an experiment to verify a mutated promoter has been cloned into a destination vector.
• Design an experiment to measure the strength of a promoter.
• Analyze data showing reporter protein produced and use the data to assess promoter strength.
• Define type IIs restriction enzymes.
• Distinguish between type II and type IIs restriction enzymes.
• Explain how Golden Gate Assembly (GGA) works.
• Measure the relative strength of a promoter compared to a standard promoter.
• ### Using a Sequential Interpretation of Data in Envelopes (SIDE) approach to identify a mystery TRP channel

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to analyze data from multiple experimental methodologies to determine the identity of their "mystery" TRP channel.
• Students will be able to interpret the results of individual experiments and from multiple experiments simultaneously to identify their "mystery" TRP channel.
• Students will be able to evaluate the advantages and limitations of experimental methodologies presented in this lesson.
• ### Using Synthetic Biology and pClone Red for Authentic Research on Promoter Function: Introductory Biology (identifying...

Learning Objectives
• Describe how cells can produce proteins at the right time and correct amount.
• Diagram how a repressor works to reduce transcription.
• Diagram how an activator works to increase transcription.
• Identify a new promoter from literature and design a method to clone it and test its function.
• Successfully and safely manipulate DNA and Escherichia coli for ligation and transformation experiments.
• Design an experiment to verify a new promoter has been cloned into a destination vector.
• Design an experiment to measure the strength of a promoter.
• Analyze data showing reporter protein produced and use the data to assess promoter strength.
• Define type IIs restriction enzymes.
• Distinguish between type II and type IIs restriction enzymes.
• Explain how Golden Gate Assembly (GGA) works.
• Measure the relative strength of a promoter compared to a standard promoter.
• ### The Leaky Neuron: Understanding synaptic integration using an analogy involving leaky cups

Learning Objectives
Students will able to:
• compare and contrast spatial and temporal summation in terms of the number of presynaptic events and the timing of these events
• predict the relative contribution to reaching threshold and firing an action potential as a function of distance from the axon hillock
• predict how the frequency of incoming presynaptic action potentials effects the success of temporal summation of resultant postsynaptic potentials
• ### A new approach to course-based research using a hermit crab-hydrozoan symbiosis

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• define different types of symbiotic interactions, with specific examples.
• summarize and critically evaluate contemporary primary literature relevant to ecological symbioses, in particular that between hermit crabs and Hydractinia spp.
• articulate a question, based on observations of a natural phenomenon (in this example, the hermit crab-Hydractinia interaction).
• articulate a testable hypothesis, based on their own observations and read of the literature.
• design appropriate experimental or observational studies to address their hypotheses.
• collect and interpret data in light of their hypotheses.
• problem-solve and troubleshoot issues that arise during their experiment.
• communicate scientific results, both orally and in written form.
• ### A Short Laboratory Module to Help Infuse Metacognition during an Introductory Course-based Research Experience

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of data.
• Students will be able to employ prior knowledge in formulating a biological research question or hypothesis.
• Students will be able to distinguish a research question from a testable hypothesis.
• Students will recognize that the following are essential elements in experimental design: identifying gaps in prior knowledge, picking an appropriate approach (ex. experimental tools and controls) for testing a hypothesis, and reproducibility and repeatability.
• Students will be able to identify appropriate experimental tools, approaches and controls to use in testing a hypothesis.
• Students will be able to accurately explain why an experimental approach they have selected is a good choice for testing a particular hypothesis.
• Students will be able to discuss whether experimental outcomes support or fail to support a particular hypothesis, and in the case of the latter, discuss possible reasons why.
• ### Understanding Protein Domains: A Modular Approach

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to compare protein sequences and identify conserved regions and putative domains.
• Students will be able to obtain, examine, and compare structural models of protein domains.
• Students will be able to interpret data on protein interactions (in vitro pull-down and in vitro and in vivo functional assays)
• Students will be able to propose experiments to test protein interactions.
• ### Tackling "Big Data" with Biology Undergrads: A Simple RNA-seq Data Analysis Tutorial Using Galaxy

Learning Objectives
• Students will locate and download high-throughput sequence data and genome annotation files from publically available data repositories.
• Students will use Galaxy to create an automated computational workflow that performs sequence quality assessment, trimming, and mapping of RNA-seq data.
• Students will analyze and interpret the outputs of RNA-seq analysis programs.
• Students will identify a group of genes that is differentially expressed between treatment and control samples, and interpret the biological significance of this list of differentially expressed genes.
• ### Discovering Prokaryotic Gene Regulation by Building and Investigating a Computational Model of the lac Operon

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• model how the components of the lac operon contribute to gene regulation and expression.
• generate and test predictions using computational modeling and simulations.
• interpret and record graphs displaying simulation results.
• relate simulation results to cellular events.
• describe how changes in environmental glucose and lactose levels impact regulation of the lac operon.
• predict, test, and explain how mutations in specific elements in the lac operon affect their protein product and other elements within the operon.
• ### Authentic Ecological Inquiries Using BearCam Archives

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• conduct an authentic ecological inquiry including
• generate a testable hypothesis based on observations,
• collect and analyze data following the design, and
• interpret results and draw conclusions based on the evidence.
• write a research report with appropriate structure and style.
• evaluate the quality of inquiry reports using a rubric.
• conduct peer review to evaluate and provide feedback to others' work.
• revise the inquiry report based on peer feedback and self-assessment.
• ### Exploration of the Human Genome by Investigation of Personalized SNPs

Learning Objectives
Students successfully completing this lesson will be able to:
• Effectively use the bioinformatics databases (SNPedia, the UCSC Genome Browser, and NCBI) to explore SNPs of interest within the human genome.
• Identify three health-related SNPs of personal interest and use the UCSC Genome Browser to define their precise chromosomal locations and determine whether they lie within a gene or are intergenic.
• Establish a list of all genome-wide association studies correlated with a particular health-related SNP.
• Predict which model organism would be most appropriate for conducting further research on a human disease.
• ### Investigating Cell Signaling with Gene Expression Datasets

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Explain the hierarchical organization of signal transduction pathways.
• Explain the role of enzymes in signal propagation and amplification.
• Recognize the centrality of signaling pathways in cellular processes, such as metabolism, cell division, or cell motility.
• Rationalize the etiologic basis of disease in terms of deranged signaling pathways.
• Use software to analyze and interpret gene expression data.
• Use an appropriate statistical method for hypotheses testing.
• Produce reports that are written in scientific style.
• ### Teaching Genetic Linkage and Recombination through Mapping with Molecular Markers

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Explain how recombination can lead to new combinations of linked alleles.
• Explain how molecular markers (such as microsatellites) can be used to map the location of genes/loci, including what crosses would be informative and why.
• Explain how banding patterns on an electrophoresis gel represent the segregation of alleles during meiosis.
• Predict how recombination frequency between two linked loci affects the genotype frequencies of the products of meiosis compared to loci that are unlinked (or very tightly linked).
• Analyze data from a cross (phenotypes and/or genotypes) to determine if the cross involves linked genes.
• Calculate the map distance between linked genes using data from genetic crosses, such as gel electrophoresis banding patterns.
• Justify conclusions about genetic linkage by describing the information in the data that allows you to determine genes are linked.
• ### Discovering Cellular Respiration with Computational Modeling and Simulations

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Describe how changes in cellular homeostasis affect metabolic intermediates.
• Perturb and interpret a simulation of cellular respiration.
• Describe cellular mechanisms regulating cellular respiration.
• Describe how glucose, oxygen, and coenzymes affect cellular respiration.
• Describe the interconnectedness of cellular respiration.
• Identify and describe the inputs and outputs of cellular respiration, glycolysis, pyruvate processing, citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain.
• Describe how different energy sources are used in cellular respiration.
• Trace carbon through cellular respiration from glucose to carbon dioxide.
• ### A clicker-based case study that untangles student thinking about the processes in the central dogma

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• explain the differences between silent (no change in the resulting amino acid sequence), missense (a change in the amino acid sequence), and nonsense (a change resulting in a premature stop codon) mutations.
• differentiate between how information is encoded during DNA replication, transcription, and translation.
• evaluate how different types of mutations (silent, missense, and nonsense) and the location of those mutations (intron, exon, and promoter) differentially affect the processes in the central dogma.
• predict the molecular (DNA size, mRNA length, mRNA abundance, and protein length) and/or phenotypic consequences of mutations.
• ### An active-learning lesson that targets student understanding of population growth in ecology

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Calculate and compare population density and abundance.
• Identify whether a growth curve describes exponential, linear, and/or logistic growth.
• Describe and calculate a population's growth rate using linear, exponential, and logistic models.
• Explain the influence of carrying capacity and population density on growth rate.
• ### A virtual laboratory on cell division using a publicly-available image database

Learning Objectives
• Students will name and describe the salient features and cellular tasks for each stage of cell division.
• Students will predict the relative durations of the stages of cell division using prior knowledge and facts from assigned readings.
• Students will describe the relationship between duration of each stage of cell division and the frequency of cells present in each stage of cell division counted in a random sample of images of pluripotent stem cells.
• Students will identify the stages of cell division present in research-quality images of human pluripotent stem cells in various stages of cell division.
• Students will quantify, analyze and summarize data on the prevalence of cells at different stages of cell division in randomly sampled cell populations.
• Students will use data to reflect on and revise predictions.
• ### The ACTN3 Polymorphism: Applications in Genetics and Physiology Teaching Laboratories

Learning Objectives
1. Test hypotheses related to the role of ACTN3 in skeletal muscle function.
2. Explain how polymorphic variants of the ACTN3 gene affect protein structure and function.
3. List and explain the differences between fast twitch and slow twitch muscle fibers.
4. List and explain possible roles of the ACTN3 protein in skeletal muscle function.
5. Find and analyze relevant scientific publications about the relationship between ACTN3 genotype and muscle function.
6. Formulate hypotheses related to the relationship between ACTN3 genotype and skeletal muscle function.
7. Design experiments to test hypotheses about the role of ACTN3 in skeletal muscle function.
8. Statistically analyze experimental results using relevant software.
9. Present experimental results in writing.
• ### Building Trees: Introducing evolutionary concepts by exploring Crassulaceae phylogeny and biogeography

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Estimate phylogenetic trees using diverse data types and phylogenetic models.
• Correctly make inferences about evolutionary history and relatedness from the tree diagrams obtained.
• Use selected computer programs for phylogenetic analysis.
• Use bootstrapping to assess the statistical support for a phylogeny.
• Use phylogenetic data to construct, compare, and evaluate the role of geologic processes in shaping the historical and current geographic distributions of a group of organisms.
• ### Cutthroat trout in Colorado: A case study connecting evolution and conservation

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• interpret figures such as maps, phylogenies, STRUCTURE plots, and networks for species delimitation
• identify sources of uncertainty and disagreement in real data sets
• propose research to address or remedy uncertainty
• construct an evidence-based argument for the management of a rare taxon
• ### Evaluating the Quick Fix: Weight Loss Drugs and Cellular Respiration

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to explain how the energy from sugars is transformed into ATP via cellular respiration.
• Students will be able to predict an outcome if there is a perturbation in the cellular respiration pathway.
• Students will be able to state and evaluate a hypothesis.
• Students will be able to interpret data from a graph, and use that data to make inferences about the action of a drug.
• ### Follow the Sulfur: Using Yeast Mutants to Study a Metabolic Pathway

Learning Objectives
At the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
• use spot plating techniques to compare the growth of yeast strains on solid culture media.
• predict the ability of specific met deletion strains to grow on media containing various sulfur sources.
• predict how mutations in specific genes will affect the concentrations of metabolites in the pathways involved in methionine biosynthesis.
• ### Bad Science: Exploring the unethical research behind a putative memory supplement

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• create criteria for evaluating information that is touted as scientific.
• apply those criteria to evaluate the claim that Prevagen® enhances memory.
• identify the misleading tactics used on the Prevagen® website and in their self-published reporting.
• decide whether to recommend taking Prevagen® and explain their decisions.
• ### CURE-all: Large Scale Implementation of Authentic DNA Barcoding Research into First-Year Biology Curriculum

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to: Week 1-4: Fundamentals of Science and Biology
• List the major processes involved in scientific discovery
• List the different types of scientific studies and which types can establish causation
• Design experiments with appropriate controls
• Create and evaluate phylogenetic trees
• Define taxonomy and phylogeny and explain their relationship to each other
• Explain DNA sequence divergence and how it applies to evolutionary relationships and DNA barcoding
Week 5-6: Ecology
• Define and measure biodiversity and explain its importance
• Catalog organisms using the morphospecies concept
• Geographically map organisms using smartphones and an online mapping program
• Calculate metrics of species diversity using spreadsheet software
• Use spreadsheet software to quantify and graph biodiversity at forest edges vs. interiors
• Write a formal lab report
Week 7-11: Cellular and Molecular Biology
• Extract, amplify, visualize and sequence DNA using standard molecular techniques (PCR, gel electrophoresis, Sanger sequencing)
• Explain how DNA extraction, PCR, gel electrophoresis, and Sanger sequencing work at the molecular level
Week 12-13: Bioinformatics
• Trim and assemble raw DNA sequence data
• Taxonomically identify DNA sequences isolated from unknown organisms using BLAST
• Visualize sequence data relationships using sequence alignments and gene-based phylogenetic trees
• Map and report data in a publicly available online database
• Share data in a formal scientific poster
• ### Discovering Prokaryotic Gene Regulation with Simulations of the trp Operon

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Perturb and interpret simulations of the trp operon.
• Define how simulation results relate to cellular events.
• Describe the biological role of the trp operon.
• Describe cellular mechanisms regulating the trp operon.
• Explain mechanistically how changes in the extracellular environment affect the trp operon.
• Define the impact of mutations on trp operon expression and regulation.
• ### Using Yeast to Make Scientists: A Six-Week Student-Driven Research Project for the Cell Biology Laboratory

Learning Objectives
• Learn about basic S. cerevisiae biology
• Use sterile technique
• Perform a yeast viability assay
• Use a spectrophotometer to measure growth of S. cerevisiae
• Perform a literature search
• Calculate concentrations of chemicals appropriate for S. cerevisiae
• Generate S. cerevisiae growth curves
• Troubleshoot experimental difficulties
• Perform statistical analysis
• Present findings to an audience
• ### A CURE-based approach to teaching genomics using mitochondrial genomes

Learning Objectives
• Install the appropriate programs such as Putty and WinSCP.
• Navigate NCBI's website including their different BLAST programs (e.g., blastn, tblastx, blastp and blastx)
• Use command-line BLAST to identify mitochondrial contigs within a whole genome assembly
• Filter the desired sequence (using grep) and move the assembled mitochondrial genome onto your own computer (using FTP or SCP)
• Error-correct contigs (bwa mem, samtools tview), connect and circularize organellar contigs (extending from filtered reads)
• Transform assembled sequences into annotated genomes
• Orient to canonical start locations in the mitochondrial genome (cox1)
• Identify the boundaries of all coding components of the mitochondrial genome using BLAST, including: Protein coding genes (BLASTx and tBLASTX), tRNAs (proprietary programs such as tRNAscan), rRNAs (BLASTn, Chlorobox), ORFs (NCBI's ORFFinder)
• Deposit annotation onto genome repository (NCBI)
• Update CV/resume to reflect bioinformatics skills learned in this lesson
• ### Using Place-Based Economically Relevant Organisms to Improve Student Understanding of the Roles of Carbon Dioxide,...

Learning Objectives
At the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Describe the roles of light energy and carbon dioxide in photosynthetic organisms.
• Identify the effect of nutrients on the growth of photosynthetic organisms.
• Describe global cycles in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and how they relate to photosynthetic organisms.
• ### An undergraduate bioinformatics curriculum that teaches eukaryotic gene structure

Learning Objectives
Module 1
• Demonstrate basic skills in using the UCSC Genome Browser to navigate to a genomic region and to control the display settings for different evidence tracks.
• Explain the relationships among DNA, pre-mRNA, mRNA, and protein.
Module 2
• Describe how a primary transcript (pre-mRNA) can be synthesized using a DNA molecule as the template.
• Explain the importance of the 5' and 3' regions of the gene for initiation and termination of transcription by RNA polymerase II.
• Identify the beginning and the end of a transcript using the capabilities of the genome browser.
Module 3
• Explain how the primary transcript generated by RNA polymerase II is processed to become a mature mRNA, using the sequence signals identified in Module 2.
• Use the genome browser to analyze the relationships among:
• pre-mRNA
• 5' capping
• splicing
• mRNA
Module 4
• Identify splice donor and acceptor sites that are best supported by RNA-Seq data and TopHat splice junction predictions.
• Utilize the canonical splice donor and splice acceptor sequences to identify intron-exon boundaries.
Module 5
• Determine the codons for specific amino acids and identify reading frames by examining the Base Position track in the genome browser.
• Assemble exons to maintain the open reading frame (ORF) for a given gene.
• Define the phases of the splice donor and acceptor sites and describe how they impact the maintenance of the ORF.
• Identify the start and stop codons of an assembled ORF.
Module 6
• Demonstrate how alternative splicing of a gene can lead to different mRNAs.
• Show how alternative splicing can lead to the production of different polypeptides and result in drastic changes in phenotype.
• ### CRISPR/Cas9 in yeast: a multi-week laboratory exercise for undergraduate students

Learning Objectives
Week 1: CRISPR design
• Locate the coding sequence, flanking sequence, protein product, and characteristics of a given gene from the Saccharomyces Genome Database (https://www.yeastgenome.org/).
• Design and defend the design of guide RNA and single stranded template for DNA repair in CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing studies to generate Saccharomyces cerevisiae auxotrophic mutants.
Week 3-4: Cloning
• Describe the qualities of the vector, pML104, that allow replication and selection in bacteria and yeast as well as allow expression of necessary factors in CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, including Cas9 and sgRNA.
• Describe the rationale of and perform procedures necessary for cloning a small cassette (i.e., sgRNA gene) into a vector (i.e., pML104) including; restriction digest, annealing of DNA strands, removal of 5’ phosphates, ligation, and transformation.
• Recognize and design appropriate controls for cloning procedures such as ligation and transformation.
Week 5: Screening clones
• Describe the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including the rationale for essential components of a reaction mixture and thermal-cycling conditions.
• Locate the binding sites of and design primers for PCR, then report the expected size of the amplification product.
• Describe and perform isolation of plasmid DNA from E. coli.
Week 6: Selection of clones and transformation of yeast
• Describe the rationale for and perform procedures to transform yeast, including the essential components of a transformation mixture and conditions necessary for transformation.
• Describe the basic conditions required for cultivating yeast.
• Describe the rationale for and perform agarose gel electrophoresis of a given size of DNA.
• Analyze DNA separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, including size estimation.
• Recognize and describe the qualities of a template for DNA repair that allows efficient DNA repair.
Week 7: Phenotyping
• Design an experiment to determine auxotrophic phenotypes.
• Predict the outcome of multi-step experiments.
Multiweek
• Recognize and describe conditions necessary for growth of E. coli and S. cerevisiae.
• Qualitatively and quantitatively analyze scientific data from scientific experiments, including bacterial and yeast transformation, agarose gel electrophoresis, extraction of plasmid DNA from bacteria, PCR, and auxotroph phenotypic analysis.
• Communicate science to peers through maintenance of a laboratory notebook, verbal communication with group members, and writing of a formal laboratory report written in a format acceptable for journal publication.
• Troubleshoot scientific protocols by identifying procedures that are prone to error, comparing recommended protocols to actual procedure, and using positive and negative controls to narrow the location of a potential error.
• Communicate specific potential or actual uses of CRISPR/Cas9 in science and/or medicine.
Alignment with Society-Generated Learning Objectives - From Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Genetics Learning Frameworks
• Use various bioinformatics approaches to analyze macromolecular primary sequence and structure.
• Illustrate how DNA is replicated and genes are transmitted from one generation to the next in multiple types of organisms including bacteria, eukaryotes, viruses, and retroviruses.
• Define what a genome consists of and how the information in various genes and other sequence classes within each genome are used to store and express genetic information.
• Explain the meaning of ploidy (haploid, diploid, aneuploid etc.) and how it relates to the number of homologues of each chromosome.
• Predict the effects of mutations on the activity, structure, or stability of a protein and design appropriate experiments to assess the effects of mutations.
• Predict the growth behavior of microbes based on their growth conditions, e.g., temperature, available nutrient, aeration level, etc.
• Discuss the benefits of specific tools of modern biotechnology that are derived from naturally occurring microbes (e.g. cloning vectors, restriction enzymes, Taq polymerase, etc.)
• Accurately prepare and use reagents and perform experiments.
• When presented with an observation, develop a testable and falsifiable hypothesis.
• When provided with a hypothesis, identify the appropriate experimental observations and controllable variables.
• ### Cell Signaling Pathways - a Case Study Approach

Learning Objectives
• Use knowledge of positive and negative regulation of signaling pathways to predict the outcome of genetic modifications or pharmaceutical manipulation.
• From phenotypic data, predict whether a mutation is in a coding or a regulatory region of a gene involved in signaling.
• Use data, combined with knowledge of pathways, to make reasonable predictions about the genetic basis of altered signaling pathways.
• Interpret and use pathway diagrams.
• Synthesize information by applying prior knowledge on gene expression when considering congenital syndromes.
• ### A flexible, multi-week approach to plant biology - How will plants respond to higher levels of CO2?

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Apply findings from each week's lesson to make predictions and informed hypotheses about the next week's lesson.
• Keep a detailed laboratory notebook.
• Write and peer-edit the sections of a scientific paper, and collaboratively write an entire lab report in the form of a scientific research paper.
• Search for, find, and read scientific research papers.
• Work together as a team to conduct experiments.
• Connect findings and ideas from each week's lesson to get a broader understanding of how plants will respond to higher levels of CO2 (e.g., stomatal density, photosynthetic/respiratory rates, foliar protein concentrations, growth, and resource allocation).
Note: Additional, more specific objectives are included with each of the four lessons (Supporting Files S1-S4)
• ### Knowing your own: A classroom case study using the scientific method to investigate how birds learn to recognize their...

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to identify and describe the steps of the scientific method.
• Students will be able to develop hypotheses and predictions.
• Students will be able to construct and interpret bar graphs based on data and predictions.
• Students will be able to draw conclusions from data presented in graphical form.
• ### Using CRISPR-Cas9 to teach the fundamentals of molecular biology and experimental design

Learning Objectives
Module 1
• Generate a testable hypothesis that requires a creative design of reagents based on critical reading of and review of prior research.
• Demonstrate proficiency in using molecular cloning software to analyze, manipulate and verify DNA sequences.
• Predict the downstream effect on the mRNA and protein after successfully inserting a DNA repair template into the genome of a cell/organism.
• Compare and contrast the processes of DNA duplication and PCR.
• Demonstrate the ability to design primers to amplify a nucleotide sequence.
• Analyze and evaluate the results of DNA agarose gel electrophoresis.
Module 2
• Identify the key features in genomic DNA, specifically those required for CRISPR-Cas9 mediated gene edits.
• Explain how compatible ends of DNA are used to produce recombinant DNA in a ligation reaction.
• Explain the chemical principles behind plasmid DNA purification from bacterial cultures.
• Devise a strategy to screen clones based on antibiotic selection and the mechanism of digestion by DNA endonucleases.
• Predict and evaluate the results of a diagnostic digest.
Module 3
• Explain the chemical principles behind DNA purification using phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation.
• Explain the key differences between DNA duplication and transcription.
• Demonstrate the ability to perform lab work with sterile technique.
• Compare and contrast the results of a non-denaturing vs. denaturing agarose gel.
• Evaluate the results of a denaturing agarose gel.
Module 4
• Design and implement an experiment that tests the CRISPR-Cas9 principle.
• Predict the outcome of a successful in vitro Cas9 digest.
Presentation of Data Post Lesson
• Summarize important background information on gene of interest from analysis of primary literature.
• Produce figures and figure legends that clearly indicate results.
• Organize and construct a poster that clearly and professionally displays the important aspects of the lesson.
• Demonstrate understanding of the lesson by presenting a poster to an audience in lay terms, mid-level terms, or at an expert level.
• Demonstrate understanding of procedures by writing a formal materials and methods paper.