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  • Photograph by Marilyn Chung, The Desert Sun
  • Students preforming the leaky neuron activity.

    The Leaky Neuron: Understanding synaptic integration using an analogy involving leaky cups

    Learning Objectives
    Students will able to:
    • compare and contrast spatial and temporal summation in terms of the number of presynaptic events and the timing of these events
    • predict the relative contribution to reaching threshold and firing an action potential as a function of distance from the axon hillock
    • predict how the frequency of incoming presynaptic action potentials effects the success of temporal summation of resultant postsynaptic potentials
  • blind cave fish
  • Images of students participating in the SIDE activity

    Using a Sequential Interpretation of Data in Envelopes (SIDE) approach to identify a mystery TRP channel

    Learning Objectives
    • Students will be able to analyze data from multiple experimental methodologies to determine the identity of their "mystery" TRP channel.
    • Students will be able to interpret the results of individual experiments and from multiple experiments simultaneously to identify their "mystery" TRP channel.
    • Students will be able to evaluate the advantages and limitations of experimental methodologies presented in this lesson.
  • Experimental design schematic
  • Train tracks, image author: Mitya Ilyinov

    BioMap Degree Plan: A project to guide students in exploring, defining, and building a plan to achieve career goals

    Learning Objectives
    Students will be able to...
    • Identify their values and interests.
    • Identify careers that align with their values and interests.
    • Identify academic programs and co-curricular experiences that will prepare them for a career.
    • Create the first draft of a BioMap Degree Plan to support achievement of their career goals.
    • Articulate how their undergraduate academic experience will prepare them for their future career.
    • Use professional communication skills
  • Wikipedia in the Science Classroom. In this primary image, students are sharing their Wikipedia article evaluations and evaluation process with their peers.
  • This is a representation of what might happen during peer discussion.

    In-class peer grading of daily quizzes increases feedback opportunities

    Learning Objectives
    Each of these objectives are illustrated with a succinct slide presentation or other supplemental material available ahead of class time through the course administration system. Learners found it particularly helpful to have video clips that remind them of mathematical manipulations available (in the above example objective c). Students understand that foundational objectives tend to be the focus of the quiz (objectives a-d) and that others will be given more time to work on together in class (objectives e-g), but I don't specify this exactly to reduce temptation that 'gamers' take a shortcut that would impact their group work negatively later on. However, the assignment for a focused graded group activity is posted as well, so it is clear what we are working towards; if desired individuals could prepare ahead of the class.
  • Fully annotated mitochondrial genome of a lichenized fungal species (Cladonia subtenuis).  This represents a visual representation of the final project result of the lesson plan. Students will submit their annotation to NCBI (GenBank) and upon acceptance of their annotation, they typically add this publicly available resource into their resume.

    A CURE-based approach to teaching genomics using mitochondrial genomes

    Learning Objectives
    • Install the appropriate programs such as Putty and WinSCP.
    • Navigate NCBI's website including their different BLAST programs (e.g., blastn, tblastx, blastp and blastx)
    • Use command-line BLAST to identify mitochondrial contigs within a whole genome assembly
    • Filter the desired sequence (using grep) and move the assembled mitochondrial genome onto your own computer (using FTP or SCP)
    • Error-correct contigs (bwa mem, samtools tview), connect and circularize organellar contigs (extending from filtered reads)
    • Transform assembled sequences into annotated genomes
    • Orient to canonical start locations in the mitochondrial genome (cox1)
    • Identify the boundaries of all coding components of the mitochondrial genome using BLAST, including: Protein coding genes (BLASTx and tBLASTX), tRNAs (proprietary programs such as tRNAscan), rRNAs (BLASTn, Chlorobox), ORFs (NCBI's ORFFinder)
    • Deposit annotation onto genome repository (NCBI)
    • Update CV/resume to reflect bioinformatics skills learned in this lesson
  • Image of a writing center

    Visits to the writing center and office hours provide students structured reflection and low-stakes feedback on...

    Learning Objectives
    • Students will be able to write a lab report that contains a descriptive title, complete and concise abstract, substantive and relevant introduction that includes a testable hypothesis, descriptive methods, description and comparison of results of various testable groups, biological explanation of the results that reflect the testable hypothesis, a conclusion that contains societal implications or scientific impact, and references cited in the document.
    • Students will be able to self-identify weaknesses and strengths of their writing.
    • Students will understand how to utilize office hours and the writing center to receive feedback on their lab reports.
  • photo credit John Friedlein. Author (SRB) helps a student troubleshooting RStudio in the workshop session of class.
  • Students at Century College use gel electrophoresis to analyze PCR samples in order to detect a group of ampicillin-resistance genes.

    Antibiotic Resistance Genes Detection in Environmental Samples

    Learning Objectives
    After completing this laboratory series, students will be able to:
    • apply the scientific method in formulating a hypothesis, designing a controlled experiment using appropriate molecular biology techniques, and analyzing experimental results;
    • conduct a molecular biology experiment and explain the principles behind methodologies, such as accurate use of micropipettes, PCR (polymerase chain reaction), and gel electrophoresis;
    • determine the presence of antibiotic-resistance genes in environmental samples by analyzing PCR products using gel electrophoresis;
    • explain mechanisms of microbial antibiotic resistance;
    • contribute data to the Antibiotic Resistance Genes Network;
    • define and apply key concepts of antibiotic resistance and gene identification via PCR fragment size.
  • Protease Protection Assay. A diagram representing sample tubes from a protease protection assay with a transmembrane protein.

    Translating Co-Translational Translocation

    Learning Objectives
    Students will be able to:
    • list the steps of co-translational translocation in the correct order.
    • describe the key functions of molecules involved in co-translational translocation.
    • predict the outcome of co-translational translocation if one of the components is missing.
    • identify the characteristics of N-terminal ER signal sequences and internal ER signal sequences.
    • predict or interpret the results of a protease protection assay used to assess co-translational translocation or transmembrane protein topology.
    • predict the topology of a co-translationally translocated protein when given a description of the ER signal sequence or predict the type of ER signal sequence encoded by the mRNA-based protein topology.
  • pClone Red Makes Research Look Easy

    Using Synthetic Biology and pClone Red for Authentic Research on Promoter Function: Introductory Biology (identifying...

    Learning Objectives
    • Describe how cells can produce proteins at the right time and correct amount.
    • Diagram how a repressor works to reduce transcription.
    • Diagram how an activator works to increase transcription.
    • Identify a new promoter from literature and design a method to clone it and test its function.
    • Successfully and safely manipulate DNA and Escherichia coli for ligation and transformation experiments.
    • Design an experiment to verify a new promoter has been cloned into a destination vector.
    • Design an experiment to measure the strength of a promoter.
    • Analyze data showing reporter protein produced and use the data to assess promoter strength.
    • Define type IIs restriction enzymes.
    • Distinguish between type II and type IIs restriction enzymes.
    • Explain how Golden Gate Assembly (GGA) works.
    • Measure the relative strength of a promoter compared to a standard promoter.
  • Format of a typical course meeting
  • MA plot of RNA-seq data. An MA plot is a visual summary of gene expression data which identifies genes showing differential expression between two treatments.

    Tackling "Big Data" with Biology Undergrads: A Simple RNA-seq Data Analysis Tutorial Using Galaxy

    Learning Objectives
    • Students will locate and download high-throughput sequence data and genome annotation files from publically available data repositories.
    • Students will use Galaxy to create an automated computational workflow that performs sequence quality assessment, trimming, and mapping of RNA-seq data.
    • Students will analyze and interpret the outputs of RNA-seq analysis programs.
    • Students will identify a group of genes that is differentially expressed between treatment and control samples, and interpret the biological significance of this list of differentially expressed genes.
  • A A student assists Colorado Parks & Wildlife employees spawning greenback cutthroat trout at the Leadville National Fish Hatchery; B greenback cutthroat trout adults in a hatchery raceway; C tissue samples collected by students to be used for genetic analysis (images taken by S. Love Stowell)

    Cutthroat trout in Colorado: A case study connecting evolution and conservation

    Learning Objectives
    Students will be able to:
    • interpret figures such as maps, phylogenies, STRUCTURE plots, and networks for species delimitation
    • identify sources of uncertainty and disagreement in real data sets
    • propose research to address or remedy uncertainty
    • construct an evidence-based argument for the management of a rare taxon
  • A student playing the Cell Pictionary® portion of this lesson.

    Teaching Cell Structures through Games

    Learning Objectives
    • Students will identify cell structures when viewing an image or diagram of a cell.
    • Students will define the function of eukaryotic organelles and structures, including describing the processes and conditions related to transmembrane transport
    • Students will differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, plant and animal cells according to their structural organization.
  • Possible implementations of a short research module

    A Short Laboratory Module to Help Infuse Metacognition during an Introductory Course-based Research Experience

    Learning Objectives
    • Students will be able to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of data.
    • Students will be able to employ prior knowledge in formulating a biological research question or hypothesis.
    • Students will be able to distinguish a research question from a testable hypothesis.
    • Students will recognize that the following are essential elements in experimental design: identifying gaps in prior knowledge, picking an appropriate approach (ex. experimental tools and controls) for testing a hypothesis, and reproducibility and repeatability.
    • Students will be able to identify appropriate experimental tools, approaches and controls to use in testing a hypothesis.
    • Students will be able to accurately explain why an experimental approach they have selected is a good choice for testing a particular hypothesis.
    • Students will be able to discuss whether experimental outcomes support or fail to support a particular hypothesis, and in the case of the latter, discuss possible reasons why.
  • Teaching epidemiology and principles of infectious disease using popular media and the case of Typhoid Mary

    Learning Objectives
    Students will be able to:
    • Describe the reservoirs of infection in humans.
    • Distinguish portals of entry and exit.
    • Describe how each of the following contributes to bacterial virulence: adhesins, extracellular enzymes, toxins, and antiphagocytic factors.
    • Define and distinguish etiology and epidemiology.
    • Describe the five typical stages of infectious disease and depict the stages in graphical form.
    • Contrast contact, vehicle and vector transmission, biological and mechanical vectors and identify the mode of transmission in a given scenario.
    • Differentiate endemic, sporadic, epidemic, and pandemic disease.
    • Distinguish descriptive, analytical, and experimental epidemiology.
    • Compare and contrast social, economic, and cultural factors impacting health care in the early 1900s and today.
  • This collage contains original images taken by the course instructor. The images show a microscopic view of stomata on the underside of a Brassica rapa leaf (A), B. rapa plants in their growth trays (B), a flowering B. rapa plant (C), and different concentrations of foliar protein (D). Photos edited via Microsoft Windows Photo Editor and Phototastic Collage Maker.

    A flexible, multi-week approach to plant biology - How will plants respond to higher levels of CO2?

    Learning Objectives
    Students will be able to:
    • Apply findings from each week's lesson to make predictions and informed hypotheses about the next week's lesson.
    • Keep a detailed laboratory notebook.
    • Write and peer-edit the sections of a scientific paper, and collaboratively write an entire lab report in the form of a scientific research paper.
    • Search for, find, and read scientific research papers.
    • Work together as a team to conduct experiments.
    • Connect findings and ideas from each week's lesson to get a broader understanding of how plants will respond to higher levels of CO2 (e.g., stomatal density, photosynthetic/respiratory rates, foliar protein concentrations, growth, and resource allocation).
    Note: Additional, more specific objectives are included with each of the four lessons (Supporting Files S1-S4)
  • The Flygometer 2.0: The photo is of the Fly Treadmill used in this experiment.

    Fly Exercise: A Simple Experiment to Test the Physiological Effects of Exercise on a Model Organism

    Learning Objectives
    Students will:
    • demonstrate understanding of the concept and details of experimental design.
    • perform an organic lipid extraction to determine total lipid content.
    • quantify enzyme activity, as well as triglyceride, glucose, and glycogen concentrations.
    • organize their collected data into spreadsheets for statistical analyses.
    • interpret the results to gain insight on the varying effects exercise has on an organism's physiology.
    • graphically present their results so that trends can be easily identified.
  • Genome view obtained from the integrated genome viewer: screenshot of Illumina 75bp single-end reads from two rockfishes Sebastes chrysomelas (top) and S. carnatus (bottom) aligned to a closely related reference genome (S. rubrivinctus).  Reads shown are within the coding region of a gene that was located in an island of genomic divergence between the two species.  The CT mutation within S. carnatus is predicted to cause an amino acid substitution from Lysine to Phenylalanine in a taste receptor gene.  This

    An Introduction to Eukaryotic Genome Analysis in Non-model Species for Undergraduates: A tutorial from the Genome...

    Learning Objectives
    At the end of the activity, students will be able to:
    • Explain the steps involved in genome assembly, annotation, and variant detection to other students and instructors.
    • Create meaningful visualizations of their data using the integrated genome viewer.
    • Use the Linux command line and web-based tools to answer research questions.
    • Produce annotated genomes and call variants from raw sequencing reads in non-model species.
  • Set Up Fly Traps: The photo is of the fly traps after being set up for the experiment

    Gotcha! Which fly trap is the best? An introduction to experimental data collection and analysis

    Learning Objectives
    Students will:
    • design and execute an experiment
    • collect, organize, and summarize data
    • analyze and interpret data and make inferences
  • Science press release cartoon.  Cartoon of a newspaper with the headline “Extra Extra! Cell Biology Makes Headlines!”

    Teaching students to read, interpret, and write about scientific research: A press release assignment in a large, lower...

    Learning Objectives
    Students will:
    • interpret the main conclusions and their supporting evidence in a primary research article.
    • concisely communicate the significance of scientific findings to an educated nonspecialist audience.
    • identify the components of a primary research article and the components of the "inverted pyramid" press release structure.
    • identify the central figure in a primary research paper and describe its key finding.
    • demonstrate an understanding of intellectual property by giving appropriate credit to other people's original work.
  • pClone Red Makes Research Look Easy

    Using Synthetic Biology and pClone Red for Authentic Research on Promoter Function: Genetics (analyzing mutant...

    Learning Objectives
    • Describe how cells can produce proteins at the right time and correct amount. 
    • Diagram a bacterial promoter with −35 and −10 elements and the transcription start site.
    • Describe how mutational analysis can be used to study promoter sequence requirements.
    • Develop a promoter mutation hypothesis and design an experiment to test it.
    • Successfully and safely manipulate DNA and Escherichia coli for ligation and transformation experiments. 
    • Design an experiment to verify a mutated promoter has been cloned into a destination vector. 
    • Design an experiment to measure the strength of a promoter. 
    • Analyze data showing reporter protein produced and use the data to assess promoter strength. 
    • Define type IIs restriction enzymes.
    • Distinguish between type II and type IIs restriction enzymes.
    • Explain how Golden Gate Assembly (GGA) works.
    • Measure the relative strength of a promoter compared to a standard promoter.  
  • Newspapers for a rainy day, filled with reports of the ways that science and society are interwoven. ©Eleanor Vandegrift

    Building student literacy and metacognition through reading science in the news

    Learning Objectives
    For each specific topic (stem cells and cloning, genetically modified organisms, and the human genome and human genetic diseases), students will be able to:
    • describe the underlying biology and explore how scientific reasoning and methods develop this understanding,
    • discuss the types of policy decisions that regulate studies related to biology or its application to human or environmental health,
    • evaluate scientific information to distinguish reliable information from propaganda,
    • explain how scientific controversies can arise when the same scientific questions are approached in different ways,
    • explore why some types of biological issues trigger regulatory decisions that can affect both research that would deepen our understanding of the issue and application of the results to policy decisions,
    • write about scientists who are researching topics related to our course, and
    • read science writing published in popular media sources.
  • Medical students at a fair. Credit: Danieladelrio

    Casting a Wide Net via Case Studies: Educating across the undergraduate to medical school continuum in the biological...

    Learning Objectives
    At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to:
    • Consider the potential advantages and disadvantages of widespread use of whole genome sequencing and direct-to-consumer genetic testing.
    • Explore the critical need to maintain privacy of individual genetic test results to protect patient interests.
    • Dissect the nuances of reporting whole genome sequencing results.
    • Recognize the economic ramifications of precision medicine strategies.
    • Formulate a deeper understanding of the ethical dimensions of emerging genetic testing technologies.
  • Abelson kinase signaling network. The image shows many connections between genes and illustrates that signaling molecules and pathways function within networks. It emphasizes the indispensability of computational tools in understanding the molecular functioning of cells. The image was generated with Cytoscape from publicly accessible protein-protein interactions databases.

    Investigating Cell Signaling with Gene Expression Datasets

    Learning Objectives
    Students will be able to:
    • Explain the hierarchical organization of signal transduction pathways.
    • Explain the role of enzymes in signal propagation and amplification.
    • Recognize the centrality of signaling pathways in cellular processes, such as metabolism, cell division, or cell motility.
    • Rationalize the etiologic basis of disease in terms of deranged signaling pathways.
    • Use software to analyze and interpret gene expression data.
    • Use an appropriate statistical method for hypotheses testing.
    • Produce reports that are written in scientific style.
  • SNP model by David Eccles (gringer) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

    Exploration of the Human Genome by Investigation of Personalized SNPs

    Learning Objectives
    Students successfully completing this lesson will be able to:
    • Effectively use the bioinformatics databases (SNPedia, the UCSC Genome Browser, and NCBI) to explore SNPs of interest within the human genome.
    • Identify three health-related SNPs of personal interest and use the UCSC Genome Browser to define their precise chromosomal locations and determine whether they lie within a gene or are intergenic.
    • Establish a list of all genome-wide association studies correlated with a particular health-related SNP.
    • Predict which model organism would be most appropriate for conducting further research on a human disease.
  • Graphic of structured decision making process

    Using Structured Decision Making to Explore Complex Environmental Issues

    Learning Objectives
    Students will be able to:
    1. Describe the process, challenges, and benefits of structured decision making for natural resource management decisions.
    2. Explain and reflect on the role of science and scientists in structured decision making and how those roles interact and compare to the roles of other stakeholders.
    3. Assess scientific evidence for a given management or policy action to resolve an environmental issue.
  • CRISPR/Cas9 in yeast experimental overview

    CRISPR/Cas9 in yeast: a multi-week laboratory exercise for undergraduate students

    Learning Objectives
    Week 1: CRISPR design
    • Locate the coding sequence, flanking sequence, protein product, and characteristics of a given gene from the Saccharomyces Genome Database (https://www.yeastgenome.org/).
    • Design and defend the design of guide RNA and single stranded template for DNA repair in CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing studies to generate Saccharomyces cerevisiae auxotrophic mutants.
    Week 3-4: Cloning
    • Describe the qualities of the vector, pML104, that allow replication and selection in bacteria and yeast as well as allow expression of necessary factors in CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, including Cas9 and sgRNA.
    • Describe the rationale of and perform procedures necessary for cloning a small cassette (i.e., sgRNA gene) into a vector (i.e., pML104) including; restriction digest, annealing of DNA strands, removal of 5’ phosphates, ligation, and transformation.
    • Recognize and design appropriate controls for cloning procedures such as ligation and transformation.
    Week 5: Screening clones
    • Describe the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including the rationale for essential components of a reaction mixture and thermal-cycling conditions.
    • Locate the binding sites of and design primers for PCR, then report the expected size of the amplification product.
    • Describe and perform isolation of plasmid DNA from E. coli.  
    Week 6: Selection of clones and transformation of yeast
    • Describe the rationale for and perform procedures to transform yeast, including the essential components of a transformation mixture and conditions necessary for transformation.
    • Describe the basic conditions required for cultivating yeast.
    • Describe the rationale for and perform agarose gel electrophoresis of a given size of DNA.
    • Analyze DNA separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, including size estimation.
    • Recognize and describe the qualities of a template for DNA repair that allows efficient DNA repair. 
    Week 7: Phenotyping
    • Design an experiment to determine auxotrophic phenotypes.
    • Predict the outcome of multi-step experiments.
    Multiweek
    • Recognize and describe conditions necessary for growth of E. coli and S. cerevisiae.
    • Qualitatively and quantitatively analyze scientific data from scientific experiments, including bacterial and yeast transformation, agarose gel electrophoresis, extraction of plasmid DNA from bacteria, PCR, and auxotroph phenotypic analysis.
    • Communicate science to peers through maintenance of a laboratory notebook, verbal communication with group members, and writing of a formal laboratory report written in a format acceptable for journal publication.
    • Troubleshoot scientific protocols by identifying procedures that are prone to error, comparing recommended protocols to actual procedure, and using positive and negative controls to narrow the location of a potential error.
    • Communicate specific potential or actual uses of CRISPR/Cas9 in science and/or medicine.
    Alignment with Society-Generated Learning Objectives - From Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Genetics Learning Frameworks
    • Use various bioinformatics approaches to analyze macromolecular primary sequence and structure.
    • Illustrate how DNA is replicated and genes are transmitted from one generation to the next in multiple types of organisms including bacteria, eukaryotes, viruses, and retroviruses.
    • Define what a genome consists of and how the information in various genes and other sequence classes within each genome are used to store and express genetic information.
    • Explain the meaning of ploidy (haploid, diploid, aneuploid etc.) and how it relates to the number of homologues of each chromosome. 
    • Predict the effects of mutations on the activity, structure, or stability of a protein and design appropriate experiments to assess the effects of mutations.
    • Predict the growth behavior of microbes based on their growth conditions, e.g., temperature, available nutrient, aeration level, etc.
    • Discuss the benefits of specific tools of modern biotechnology that are derived from naturally occurring microbes (e.g. cloning vectors, restriction enzymes, Taq polymerase, etc.)
    • Accurately prepare and use reagents and perform experiments.
    • When presented with an observation, develop a testable and falsifiable hypothesis.
    • When provided with a hypothesis, identify the appropriate experimental observations and controllable variables.
  • Pipets - photo by Magnus Manske

    Learning to Pipet Correctly by Pipetting Incorrectly?

    Learning Objectives
    • Students will be able to use analytical balances and micropipettes.
    • Students will be able to calculate averages and standard deviations.
    • Students will be able to use t-tests to compare two independent samples.
    • Students will be able to justify accepting or rejecting a null hypothesis based on an interpretation of p-values.
    • Students will learn to use spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel and/or Google Sheets
    • Students will be able to explain how pipetting incorrectly leads to errors.
  • Plant ecology students surveying vegetation at Red Hills, CA, spring 2012.  From left to right are G.L, F.D, A.M., and R.P.  Photo used with permission from all students.

    Out of Your Seat and on Your Feet! An adaptable course-based research project in plant ecology for advanced students

    Learning Objectives
    Students will:
    • Articulate testable hypotheses. (Lab 8, final presentation/paper, in-class exercises)
    • Analyze data to determine the level of support for articulated hypotheses. (Labs 4-7, final presentation/paper)
    • Identify multiple species of plants in the field quickly and accurately. (Labs 2-3, field trip)
    • Measure environmental variables and sample vegetation in the field. (Labs 2-3, field trip)
    • Analyze soil samples using a variety of low-tech lab techniques. (Open labs after field trip)
    • Use multiple statistical techniques to analyze data for patterns. (Labs 4-8, final presentation/paper)
    • Interpret statistical analyses to distinguish between strong and weak interactions in a biological system. (Labs 4-7, final presentation/paper)
    • Develop and present a conference-style presentation in a public forum. (Lab 8, final presentation/paper)
    • Write a publication-ready research paper communicating findings and displaying data. (Lab 8, final presentation/paper)
  • Image from http://www.epa.gov/airdata/ad_maps.html

    Air Quality Data Mining: Mining the US EPA AirData website for student-led evaluation of air quality issues

    Learning Objectives
    Students will be able to:
    • Describe various parameters of air quality that can negatively impact human health, list priority air pollutants, and interpret the EPA Air Quality Index as it relates to human health.
    • Identify an air quality problem that varies on spatial and/or temporal scales that can be addressed using publicly available U.S. EPA air data.
    • Collect appropriate U.S. EPA Airdata information needed to answer that/those questions, using the U.S. EPA Airdata website data mining tools.
    • Analyze the data as needed to address or answer their question(s).
    • Interpret data and draw conclusions regarding air quality levels and/or impacts on human and public health.
    • Communicate results in the form of a scientific paper.
  • Madhumathi S V (2013) This image is license under a Creative Commons Atrribution-Share Alike 4.0 International.  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Business_ethics.jpg

    Priority Setting in Public Health: A lesson in ethics and hard choices

    Learning Objectives
    At the end of this unit, students will be able to:
    • Define the central distinction between public health and medicine
    • Apply objectives of public health and individual medical care in a particular situation to identify potential areas of conflict in priority setting
    • Apply moral theories of utilitarianism and deontology to a particular situation to identify the course of action proponents of each theory would see as morally justified
    • Identify the range of morally justifiable actions that might be available to a health professional in a particular setting
    • Choose from among a range of possible actions in a particular health situation and articulate the ethical principles that would justify that choice.
  • Hydrozoan polyps on a hermit-crab shell (photo by Tiffany Galush)

    A new approach to course-based research using a hermit crab-hydrozoan symbiosis

    Learning Objectives
    Students will be able to:
    • define different types of symbiotic interactions, with specific examples.
    • summarize and critically evaluate contemporary primary literature relevant to ecological symbioses, in particular that between hermit crabs and Hydractinia spp.
    • articulate a question, based on observations of a natural phenomenon (in this example, the hermit crab-Hydractinia interaction).
    • articulate a testable hypothesis, based on their own observations and read of the literature.
    • design appropriate experimental or observational studies to address their hypotheses.
    • collect and interpret data in light of their hypotheses.
    • problem-solve and troubleshoot issues that arise during their experiment.
    • communicate scientific results, both orally and in written form.
  • Enzymatic avocado browning is driven by polyphenol oxidase. Mashed avocado pulp is bright green but turns dark brown over the course of two hours at room temperature in the presence of air and salt. This reaction can be accelerated or inhibited by more than 20 different testable reagents, allowing students to explore experimental design.

    The Avocado Lab: An Inquiry-Driven Exploration of an Enzymatic Browning Reaction

    Learning Objectives
    Students will be able to:
    • develop a testable research question and supportive hypothesis regarding the browning of damaged avocado flesh caused by the activity of avocado polyphenol oxidase (aPPO).
    • design and execute a well-controlled experiment to test aPPO hypotheses.
    • evaluate qualitative enzyme activity data.
    • create a figure and legend to present qualitative data that tests multiple hypotheses and variables.
    • search for and correctly cite primary literature to support or refute hypotheses.
    • know the role of reducing reagents, pH, chelators, and temperature in reactions catalyzed by aPPO.
    • explain why the effects of salt and detergent differ for aPPO experiments conducted in situ
    • (in mashed avocado flesh) as compared to in vitro (on purified protein).
    • discuss how substrate and cofactor availability affect aPPO reactions.
    • describe how endogenous subcellular organization restricts aPPO reactions in a healthy avocado.
    • evaluate food handling practices for fruits expressing PPO.
  • DNA barcoding research in first-year biology curriculum

    CURE-all: Large Scale Implementation of Authentic DNA Barcoding Research into First-Year Biology Curriculum

    Learning Objectives
    Students will be able to: Week 1-4: Fundamentals of Science and Biology
    • List the major processes involved in scientific discovery
    • List the different types of scientific studies and which types can establish causation
    • Design experiments with appropriate controls
    • Create and evaluate phylogenetic trees
    • Define taxonomy and phylogeny and explain their relationship to each other
    • Explain DNA sequence divergence and how it applies to evolutionary relationships and DNA barcoding
    Week 5-6: Ecology
    • Define and measure biodiversity and explain its importance
    • Catalog organisms using the morphospecies concept
    • Geographically map organisms using smartphones and an online mapping program
    • Calculate metrics of species diversity using spreadsheet software
    • Use spreadsheet software to quantify and graph biodiversity at forest edges vs. interiors
    • Write a formal lab report
    Week 7-11: Cellular and Molecular Biology
    • Extract, amplify, visualize and sequence DNA using standard molecular techniques (PCR, gel electrophoresis, Sanger sequencing)
    • Explain how DNA extraction, PCR, gel electrophoresis, and Sanger sequencing work at the molecular level
    Week 12-13: Bioinformatics
    • Trim and assemble raw DNA sequence data
    • Taxonomically identify DNA sequences isolated from unknown organisms using BLAST
    • Visualize sequence data relationships using sequence alignments and gene-based phylogenetic trees
    • Map and report data in a publicly available online database
    • Share data in a formal scientific poster
  • Memory Helper is an illustration of a made up dietary supplement. Because the supplement is named Memory Helper, and because a picture of a brain is placed on the label, consumers might believe that the supplement is a memory aid. We add the footnote “tested?” to suggest that consumers should take a closer look.

    Bad Science: Exploring the unethical research behind a putative memory supplement

    Learning Objectives
    Students will be able to:
    • create criteria for evaluating information that is touted as scientific.
    • apply those criteria to evaluate the claim that Prevagen® enhances memory.
    • identify the misleading tactics used on the Prevagen® website and in their self-published reporting.
    • decide whether to recommend taking Prevagen® and explain their decisions.
  • A photo of grizzly bears fishing in the McNeil Falls in Alaska, taken using BearCam by Lawrence Griffing.

    Authentic Ecological Inquiries Using BearCam Archives

    Learning Objectives
    Students will be able to:
    • conduct an authentic ecological inquiry including
      • generate a testable hypothesis based on observations,
      • design investigation with appropriate sampling selection and variables,
      • collect and analyze data following the design, and
      • interpret results and draw conclusions based on the evidence.
    • write a research report with appropriate structure and style.
    • evaluate the quality of inquiry reports using a rubric.
    • conduct peer review to evaluate and provide feedback to others' work.
    • revise the inquiry report based on peer feedback and self-assessment.
  • Using Place-Based Economically Relevant Organisms to Improve Student Understanding of the Roles of Carbon Dioxide,...

    Learning Objectives
    At the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
    • Describe the roles of light energy and carbon dioxide in photosynthetic organisms.
    • Identify the effect of nutrients on the growth of photosynthetic organisms.
    • Describe global cycles in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and how they relate to photosynthetic organisms.
  • ACTN3 from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/33/Protein_ACTN3_PDB_1tjt.png

    The Science Behind the ACTN3 Polymorphism

    Learning Objectives
    This article accompanies the lesson "The ACTN3 Polymorphism: Applications in Genetics and Physiology Teaching Laboratories." Learning objectives for the lesson include:
    1. Test hypotheses related to the role of ACTN3 in skeletal muscle function.
    2. Explain how polymorphic variants of the ACTN3 gene affect protein structure and function.
    3. List and explain the differences between fast twitch and slow twitch muscle fibers.
    4. List and explain possible roles of the ACTN3 protein in skeletal muscle function.
    5. Find and analyze relevant scientific publications about the relationship between ACTN3 genotype and muscle function.
    6. Formulate hypotheses related to the relationship between ACTN3 genotype and skeletal muscle function.
    7. Design experiments to test hypotheses about the role of ACTN3 in skeletal muscle function.
    8. Statistically analyze experimental results using relevant software.
    9. Present experimental results in writing.
  • ACTN3 from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/33/Protein_ACTN3_PDB_1tjt.png

    The ACTN3 Polymorphism: Applications in Genetics and Physiology Teaching Laboratories

    Learning Objectives
    1. Test hypotheses related to the role of ACTN3 in skeletal muscle function.
    2. Explain how polymorphic variants of the ACTN3 gene affect protein structure and function.
    3. List and explain the differences between fast twitch and slow twitch muscle fibers.
    4. List and explain possible roles of the ACTN3 protein in skeletal muscle function.
    5. Find and analyze relevant scientific publications about the relationship between ACTN3 genotype and muscle function.
    6. Formulate hypotheses related to the relationship between ACTN3 genotype and skeletal muscle function.
    7. Design experiments to test hypotheses about the role of ACTN3 in skeletal muscle function.
    8. Statistically analyze experimental results using relevant software.
    9. Present experimental results in writing.
  • Students participating in the peer review process. Practicing the writing of scientific manuscripts prepares students to understand and engage in the primary literature they encounter.
  • “Quantifying variation in biodiversity” Groundhogs (Marmota monax) with conspicuous variation awaiting measurements.

    Teaching Biodiversity with Museum Specimens in an Inquiry-Based Lab

    Learning Objectives
    Students completing this lab module will:
    • Learn how to appropriately handle and measure museum specimens.
    • Develop the necessary statistical skills to analyze museum specimen data.
    • Become familiar with how to search an online museum database and integrate supplemental data with their own dataset.
    • Strengthen scientific communication skills by presenting research to their peers.
    • Demonstrate ability to investigate scientific questions and address obstacles that occur during data collection and integration.
    • Increase proficiency in managing and using large datasets for scientific research.
    • Make connections between natural history knowledge and morphology of organisms in developing and testing hypotheses.
  • DNA

    Using CRISPR-Cas9 to teach the fundamentals of molecular biology and experimental design

    Learning Objectives
    Module 1
    • Generate a testable hypothesis that requires a creative design of reagents based on critical reading of and review of prior research.
    • Demonstrate proficiency in using molecular cloning software to analyze, manipulate and verify DNA sequences.
    • Predict the downstream effect on the mRNA and protein after successfully inserting a DNA repair template into the genome of a cell/organism.
    • Compare and contrast the processes of DNA duplication and PCR.
    • Demonstrate the ability to design primers to amplify a nucleotide sequence.
    • Analyze and evaluate the results of DNA agarose gel electrophoresis.
    Module 2
    • Identify the key features in genomic DNA, specifically those required for CRISPR-Cas9 mediated gene edits.
    • Explain how compatible ends of DNA are used to produce recombinant DNA in a ligation reaction.
    • Explain the chemical principles behind plasmid DNA purification from bacterial cultures.
    • Devise a strategy to screen clones based on antibiotic selection and the mechanism of digestion by DNA endonucleases.
    • Predict and evaluate the results of a diagnostic digest.
    Module 3
    • Explain the chemical principles behind DNA purification using phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation.
    • Explain the key differences between DNA duplication and transcription.
    • Demonstrate the ability to perform lab work with sterile technique.
    • Compare and contrast the results of a non-denaturing vs. denaturing agarose gel.
    • Evaluate the results of a denaturing agarose gel.
    Module 4
    • Design and implement an experiment that tests the CRISPR-Cas9 principle.
    • Predict the outcome of a successful in vitro Cas9 digest.
    Presentation of Data Post Lesson
    • Summarize important background information on gene of interest from analysis of primary literature.
    • Produce figures and figure legends that clearly indicate results.
    • Organize and construct a poster that clearly and professionally displays the important aspects of the lesson.
    • Demonstrate understanding of the lesson by presenting a poster to an audience in lay terms, mid-level terms, or at an expert level.
    • Demonstrate understanding of procedures by writing a formal materials and methods paper.
  • An active-learning lesson that targets student understanding of population growth in ecology

    Learning Objectives
    Students will be able to:
    • Calculate and compare population density and abundance.
    • Identify whether a growth curve describes exponential, linear, and/or logistic growth.
    • Describe and calculate a population's growth rate using linear, exponential, and logistic models.
    • Explain the influence of carrying capacity and population density on growth rate.
  • Playon Words Title Screen

    Using Gamification to Teach Undergraduate Students about Scientific Writing

    Learning Objectives
    Topics within Playon Words are grouped into “mini-games.” The Learning Objectives for each mini-game are as follows: Sentence Sensei
    • Identify the best sentence variant from a list of options
    • Identify and eliminate needless words
    • Identify where and when to use different types of punctuation marks
    • Identify and correct common grammar mistakes
    Organization Optimizer
    • Organize sentences in a logical order
    • Describe the components of different sections of a scientific paper
    • Identify the section of a scientific paper where a given sentence belongs
    • Eliminate sentences which do not belong in a given writing sample
    Science Officer Training
    • Classify statements as scientific or non-scientific
    • Identify which statements support a particular hypothesis or position
    • Classify provided sentences (e.g. hypotheses vs. predictions, problems vs. experiments, results vs. discussion)
    Reference Referee
    • Compare and contrast different types (e.g. primary literature, review articles, popular literature etc.) and sources (PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar etc.) of scientific information
    • Identify locations in texts where citations are needed
    • Identify citations and/or references that are incorrect or missing key information
    • Identify information that does not belong in the reference list (e.g. vendor information)
  • Aldh1a2 expression in Stage 33 Xenopus laevis embryo: In this lab exercise, students visualize differential gene expression in Xenopus embryos using in situ hybridization.

    Differential Gene Expression during Xenopus laevis Development

    Learning Objectives
    Students will be able to:
    • identify different stages of Xenopus development
    • contrast the strengths and limitations of the Xenopus model organism
    • explain the process and purpose of in situ hybridization
    • compare gene expression patterns from different germ layers or organ domains
    • compare gene expression patterns from different developmental stages

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