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• ### Taking the Hassle out of Hasselbalch

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
1. Characterize an aqueous environment as acidic or basic.
2. Explain that pKa is a measure of how easy it is to remove a proton from a molecule.
3. Predict ionization state of a molecule at a particular pH based on its pKa (qualitative use of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation).
4. Calculate the ratio of protonated/unprotonated forms of ionizable groups depending on chemical characteristics and /or environment pH (quantitative use of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation).
5. Apply this knowledge in a medical context.
• ### Forensic Phylogenetics: Implementing Tree-thinking in a Court of Law

Learning Objectives

• Students will be able to infer the topological and temporal relationships expected in an evolutionary tree (phylogeny) of a pathogen in the case of transmission from one host to the next.
• Students will be able to draw trees representing the transmission events from one host (patient zero) to multiple secondary patients.
• ### What do Bone and Silly Putty® have in Common?: A Lesson on Bone Viscoelasticity

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to explain how the anatomical structure of long bones relates to their function.
• Students will be able to define viscoelasticity, hysteresis, anisotropy, stiffness, strength, ductility, and toughness.
• Students will be able to identify the elastic and plastic regions of a stress-strain curve. They will be able to correlate each phase of the stress-strain curve with physical changes to bone.
• Students will be able to predict how a bone would respond to changes in the magnitude of an applied force, and to variations in the speed or angle at which a force is applied.
• Students will be able to determine the reason(s) why bone injuries occur more frequently during athletic events than during normal everyday use.
• ### Infectious Chocolate Joy with a Side of Poissonian Statistics: An activity connecting life science students with subtle...

Learning Objectives
• Students will define a Poisson distribution.
• Students will generate a data set on the probability of a T cell being infected with a virus(es).
• Students will predict the likelihood of one observing the mean value of viruses occurring.
• Students will evaluate the outcomes of a random process.
• Students will hypothesize whether a process is Poissonian and design a test for that hypothesis.
• Students will collect data and create a histogram from their data.
• ### Grow the Gradient: An interactive countercurrent multiplier game

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to simulate the movement of water and sodium at each region of the loop of Henle.
• Students will be able to associate osmosis and active transport with movement of water/solutes at each region of the loop of Henle.
• Students will be able to model how the descending and ascending limbs of the loop of Henle maintain a concentration gradient within the medulla.
• Students will be able to predict the effects of altering normal water and salt movement out of the loop of Henle on the salt concentration of the medulla, urine concentration, and urine volume.
• Students will be able to predict the impact of the length of the loop of Henle on the magnitude of the concentration gradient within the medulla.
• Students will be able to predict the length of the loop of Henle in organisms from different habitats.
• ### It's a bird! It's a plane! It's biomechanics!

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• identify and define forces that act on an object in flight.
• understand the definition of Newton’s third law of motion, which states that with every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, and apply this principle to explain pressure differences and lift generation.
• generate hypotheses about animal flight efficiency based on examining morphology (anatomy).
• generate hypotheses correlating wing size and performance during flight.
• apply their understanding of wing designs and wing relationships to total mass.
• compare flight principles among animals to understand the co-evolution in several animal groups.
• ### The Inside and Outside the Body

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• correctly identify when a substance (e.g. fetus, bacteria, toxins) is inside or outside the body.
• recognize the point at which a substance transitions from the inside to the outside of the body and vice versa.
• apply the concept of inside and outside the body to both normal events, such as the movement of oxygen from the alveolus to the blood, and abnormal events, such as the presence of blood in the urine.
• ### Sex and gender: What does it mean to be female or male?

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to distinguish between sex and gender, and apply each term appropriately.
• Students will be able to compare and contrast levels of sexual determination.
• Students will be able to critique societal misrepresentations surrounding sex, gender, and gender identity.

Learning Objectives
Topics within Playon Words are grouped into “mini-games.” The Learning Objectives for each mini-game are as follows: Sentence Sensei
• Identify the best sentence variant from a list of options
• Identify and eliminate needless words
• Identify where and when to use different types of punctuation marks
• Identify and correct common grammar mistakes
Organization Optimizer
• Organize sentences in a logical order
• Describe the components of different sections of a scientific paper
• Identify the section of a scientific paper where a given sentence belongs
• Eliminate sentences which do not belong in a given writing sample
Science Officer Training
• Classify statements as scientific or non-scientific
• Identify which statements support a particular hypothesis or position
• Classify provided sentences (e.g. hypotheses vs. predictions, problems vs. experiments, results vs. discussion)
Reference Referee
• Compare and contrast different types (e.g. primary literature, review articles, popular literature etc.) and sources (PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar etc.) of scientific information
• Identify locations in texts where citations are needed
• Identify citations and/or references that are incorrect or missing key information
• Identify information that does not belong in the reference list (e.g. vendor information)
• ### Fruit Fly Genetics in a Day: A Guided Exploration to Help Many Large Sections of Beginning Students Uncover the Secrets...

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to handle and anesthetize Drosophila fruit flies.
• Students will be able to use a dissecting microscope to sex Drosophila fruit flies.
• Students will implement some steps of the scientific method.
• Students will successfully predict the results of sex-linked genetics crosses.
• Students will interpret genetic data.
• ### Make It Stick: Teaching Gene Targeting with Ribbons and Fasteners

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to design targeting constructs.
• Students will be able to predict changes to the gene locus after homologous recombination.
• Students will be able to design experiments to answer a biological question (e.g., "Design an experiment to test if the expression of gene X is necessary for limb development").
• ### Evaluating the Quick Fix: Weight Loss Drugs and Cellular Respiration

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to explain how the energy from sugars is transformed into ATP via cellular respiration.
• Students will be able to predict an outcome if there is a perturbation in the cellular respiration pathway.
• Students will be able to state and evaluate a hypothesis.
• Students will be able to interpret data from a graph, and use that data to make inferences about the action of a drug.
• ### Furry with a chance of evolution: Exploring genetic drift with tuco-tucos

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to explain how genetic drift leads to allelic changes over generations.
• Students will be able to demonstrate that sampling error can affect every generation, which can result in random changes in allelic frequency.
• Students will be able to explore and evaluate the effect of population size on the strength of genetic drift.
• Students will be able to analyze quantitative data associated with genetic drift.
• ### Dilution and Pipetting Lesson Using Food Dyes

Learning Objectives
• Students can use the formula c1v1=c2v2 to calculate dilutions.
• Students can accurately set and use a micropipette.
• Students are able to prepare complex solutions such as enzyme reactions.
• ### Why Meiosis Matters: The case of the fatherless snake

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Compare and contrast the process and outcomes of mitosis & meiosis
• Predict consequences of abnormal meiosis including
• The potential genotype and/or phenotypes of offspring produced when meiosis does not occur properly
• The stage(s) of meiosis that could have been abnormal given an offspring’s genotype and/or phenotype