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Teaching the Biological Relevance of Chemical Kinetics Using Cold-Blooded Animal BiologyLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Predict the effect of reaction temperature on the rate of a chemical reaction
- Interpret a graph plotted between rate of a chemical reaction and temperature
- Discuss chemical kinetics utilizing case studies of cold-blooded animals
You and Your Oral Microflora: Introducing non-biology majors to their “forgotten organ”Learning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Explain both beneficial and detrimental roles of microbes in human health.
- Compare and contrast DNA replication as it occurs inside a cell versus in a test tube
- Identify an unknown sequence of DNA by performing a BLAST search
- Navigate sources of scientific information to assess the accuracy of their experimental techniques
Does it pose a threat? Investigating the impact of Bt corn on monarch butterfliesLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Apply genetics concepts to a relevant case study of Bt corn and monarch butterflies
- Read figures and text from primary literature
- Identify claims presented in scientific studies
- Evaluate data presented in scientific studies
- Critically reason using data
- Evaluate the consequences of GM technology on non-target organisms
- Communicate scientific data orally
Homologous chromosomes? Exploring human sex chromosomes, sex determination and sex reversal using bioinformatics...Learning ObjectivesStudents successfully completing this lesson will:
- Practice navigating an online bioinformatics resource and identify evidence relevant to solving investigation questions
- Contrast the array of genes expected on homologous autosomal chromosomes pairs with the array of genes expected on sex chromosome pairs
- Use bioinformatics evidence to defend the definition of homologous chromosomes
- Define chromosomal sex and defend the definition using experimental data
- Investigate the genetic basis of human chromosomal sex determination
- Identify at least two genetic mutations can lead to sex reversal
Dynamic Daphnia: An inquiry-based research experience in ecology that teaches the scientific process to first-year...Learning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Construct written predictions about 1 factor experiments.
- Interpret simple (2 variables) figures.
- Construct simple (2 variables) figures from data.
- Design simple 1 factor experiments with appropriate controls.
- Demonstrate proper use of standard laboratory items, including a two-stop pipette, stereomicroscope, and laboratory notebook.
- Calculate means and standard deviations.
- Given some scaffolding (instructions), select the correct statistical test for a data set, be able to run a t-test, ANOVA, chi-squared test, and linear regression in Microsoft Excel, and be able to correctly interpret their results.
- Construct and present a scientific poster.
Follow the Sulfur: Using Yeast Mutants to Study a Metabolic PathwayLearning ObjectivesAt the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
- use spot plating techniques to compare the growth of yeast strains on solid culture media.
- predict the ability of specific met deletion strains to grow on media containing various sulfur sources.
- predict how mutations in specific genes will affect the concentrations of metabolites in the pathways involved in methionine biosynthesis.
A new approach to course-based research using a hermit crab-hydrozoan symbiosisLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- define different types of symbiotic interactions, with specific examples.
- summarize and critically evaluate contemporary primary literature relevant to ecological symbioses, in particular that between hermit crabs and Hydractinia spp.
- articulate a question, based on observations of a natural phenomenon (in this example, the hermit crab-Hydractinia interaction).
- articulate a testable hypothesis, based on their own observations and read of the literature.
- design appropriate experimental or observational studies to address their hypotheses.
- collect and interpret data in light of their hypotheses.
- problem-solve and troubleshoot issues that arise during their experiment.
- communicate scientific results, both orally and in written form.
Building student literacy and metacognition through reading science in the newsLearning ObjectivesFor each specific topic (stem cells and cloning, genetically modified organisms, and the human genome and human genetic diseases), students will be able to:
- describe the underlying biology and explore how scientific reasoning and methods develop this understanding,
- discuss the types of policy decisions that regulate studies related to biology or its application to human or environmental health,
- evaluate scientific information to distinguish reliable information from propaganda,
- explain how scientific controversies can arise when the same scientific questions are approached in different ways,
- explore why some types of biological issues trigger regulatory decisions that can affect both research that would deepen our understanding of the issue and application of the results to policy decisions,
- write about scientists who are researching topics related to our course, and
- read science writing published in popular media sources.
A clicker-based case study that untangles student thinking about the processes in the central dogmaLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- explain the differences between silent (no change in the resulting amino acid sequence), missense (a change in the amino acid sequence), and nonsense (a change resulting in a premature stop codon) mutations.
- differentiate between how information is encoded during DNA replication, transcription, and translation.
- evaluate how different types of mutations (silent, missense, and nonsense) and the location of those mutations (intron, exon, and promoter) differentially affect the processes in the central dogma.
- predict the molecular (DNA size, mRNA length, mRNA abundance, and protein length) and/or phenotypic consequences of mutations.
Using Place-Based Economically Relevant Organisms to Improve Student Understanding of the Roles of Carbon Dioxide,...Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
- Describe the roles of light energy and carbon dioxide in photosynthetic organisms.
- Identify the effect of nutrients on the growth of photosynthetic organisms.
- Describe global cycles in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and how they relate to photosynthetic organisms.
Evaluating the Quick Fix: Weight Loss Drugs and Cellular RespirationLearning Objectives
- Students will be able to explain how the energy from sugars is transformed into ATP via cellular respiration.
- Students will be able to predict an outcome if there is a perturbation in the cellular respiration pathway.
- Students will be able to state and evaluate a hypothesis.
- Students will be able to interpret data from a graph, and use that data to make inferences about the action of a drug.
Sequence Similarity: An inquiry based and "under the hood" approach for incorporating molecular sequence...Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
- Define similarity in a non-biological and biological sense when provided with two strings of letters.
- Quantify the similarity between two gene/protein sequences.
- Explain how a substitution matrix is used to quantify similarity.
- Calculate amino acid similarity scores using a scoring matrix.
- Demonstrate how to access genomic data (e.g., from NCBI nucleotide and protein databases).
- Demonstrate how to use bioinformatics tools to analyze genomic data (e.g., BLASTP), explain a simplified BLAST search algorithm including how similarity is used to perform a BLAST search, and how to evaluate the results of a BLAST search.
- Create a nearest-neighbor distance matrix.
- Create a multiple sequence alignment using a nearest-neighbor distance matrix and a phylogram based on similarity of amino acid sequences.
- Use appropriate bioinformatics sequence alignment tools to investigate a biological question.
Teaching RNAseq at Undergraduate Institutions: A tutorial and R package from the Genome Consortium for Active TeachingLearning Objectives
- From raw RNAseq data, run a basic analysis culminating in a list of differentially expressed genes.
- Explain and evaluate statistical tests in RNAseq data. Specifically, given the output of a particular test, students should be able to interpret and explain the result.
- Use the Linux command line to complete specified objectives in an RNAseq workflow.
- Generate meaningful visualizations of results from new data in R.
- (In addition, each chapter of this lesson plan contains more specific learning objectives, such as “Students will demonstrate their ability to map reads to a reference.”)
Exploring the March to Mars Using 3D Print ModelsLearning Objectives
- Students will be able to describe the major aspects of the Mars Curiosity Rover missions.
- Students will be able to synthesize information learned from a classroom jigsaw activity on the Mars Curiosity Rover missions.
- Students will be able to work in teams to plan a future manned mission to Mars.
- Students will be able to summarize their reports to the class.
Linking Genotype to Phenotype: The Effect of a Mutation in Gibberellic Acid Production on Plant GerminationLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- identify when germination occurs.
- score germination in the presence and absence of GA to construct graphs of collated class data of wild-type and mutant specimens.
- identify the genotype of an unknown sample based on the analysis of their graphical data.
- organize data and perform quantitative data analysis.
- explain the importance of GA for plant germination.
- connect the inheritance of a mutation with the observed phenotype.
Air Quality Data Mining: Mining the US EPA AirData website for student-led evaluation of air quality issuesLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Describe various parameters of air quality that can negatively impact human health, list priority air pollutants, and interpret the EPA Air Quality Index as it relates to human health.
- Identify an air quality problem that varies on spatial and/or temporal scales that can be addressed using publicly available U.S. EPA air data.
- Collect appropriate U.S. EPA Airdata information needed to answer that/those questions, using the U.S. EPA Airdata website data mining tools.
- Analyze the data as needed to address or answer their question(s).
- Interpret data and draw conclusions regarding air quality levels and/or impacts on human and public health.
- Communicate results in the form of a scientific paper.
Discovering Prokaryotic Gene Regulation by Building and Investigating a Computational Model of the lac OperonLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- model how the components of the lac operon contribute to gene regulation and expression.
- generate and test predictions using computational modeling and simulations.
- interpret and record graphs displaying simulation results.
- relate simulation results to cellular events.
- describe how changes in environmental glucose and lactose levels impact regulation of the lac operon.
- predict, test, and explain how mutations in specific elements in the lac operon affect their protein product and other elements within the operon.
The Avocado Lab: An Inquiry-Driven Exploration of an Enzymatic Browning ReactionLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- develop a testable research question and supportive hypothesis regarding the browning of damaged avocado flesh caused by the activity of avocado polyphenol oxidase (aPPO).
- design and execute a well-controlled experiment to test aPPO hypotheses.
- evaluate qualitative enzyme activity data.
- create a figure and legend to present qualitative data that tests multiple hypotheses and variables.
- search for and correctly cite primary literature to support or refute hypotheses.
- know the role of reducing reagents, pH, chelators, and temperature in reactions catalyzed by aPPO.
- explain why the effects of salt and detergent differ for aPPO experiments conducted in situ
- (in mashed avocado flesh) as compared to in vitro (on purified protein).
- discuss how substrate and cofactor availability affect aPPO reactions.
- describe how endogenous subcellular organization restricts aPPO reactions in a healthy avocado.
- evaluate food handling practices for fruits expressing PPO.
Using Synthetic Biology and pClone Red for Authentic Research on Promoter Function: Introductory Biology (identifying...Learning Objectives
- Describe how cells can produce proteins at the right time and correct amount.
- Diagram how a repressor works to reduce transcription.
- Diagram how an activator works to increase transcription.
- Identify a new promoter from literature and design a method to clone it and test its function.
- Successfully and safely manipulate DNA and Escherichia coli for ligation and transformation experiments.
- Design an experiment to verify a new promoter has been cloned into a destination vector.
- Design an experiment to measure the strength of a promoter.
- Analyze data showing reporter protein produced and use the data to assess promoter strength.
- Define type IIs restriction enzymes.
- Distinguish between type II and type IIs restriction enzymes.
- Explain how Golden Gate Assembly (GGA) works.
- Measure the relative strength of a promoter compared to a standard promoter.
Discovering Prokaryotic Gene Regulation with Simulations of the trp OperonLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Perturb and interpret simulations of the trp operon.
- Define how simulation results relate to cellular events.
- Describe the biological role of the trp operon.
- Describe cellular mechanisms regulating the trp operon.
- Explain mechanistically how changes in the extracellular environment affect the trp operon.
- Define the impact of mutations on trp operon expression and regulation.
Modeling the Research Process: Authentic human physiology research in a large non-majors courseLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Read current scientific literature
- Formulate testable hypotheses
- Design an experimental procedure to test their hypothesis
- Make scientific observations
- Analyze and interpret data
- Communicate results visually and orally
A flexible, multi-week approach to plant biology - How will plants respond to higher levels of CO2?Learning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Apply findings from each week's lesson to make predictions and informed hypotheses about the next week's lesson.
- Keep a detailed laboratory notebook.
- Write and peer-edit the sections of a scientific paper, and collaboratively write an entire lab report in the form of a scientific research paper.
- Search for, find, and read scientific research papers.
- Work together as a team to conduct experiments.
- Connect findings and ideas from each week's lesson to get a broader understanding of how plants will respond to higher levels of CO2 (e.g., stomatal density, photosynthetic/respiratory rates, foliar protein concentrations, growth, and resource allocation).
CURE-all: Large Scale Implementation of Authentic DNA Barcoding Research into First-Year Biology CurriculumLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to: Week 1-4: Fundamentals of Science and Biology
- List the major processes involved in scientific discovery
- List the different types of scientific studies and which types can establish causation
- Design experiments with appropriate controls
- Create and evaluate phylogenetic trees
- Define taxonomy and phylogeny and explain their relationship to each other
- Explain DNA sequence divergence and how it applies to evolutionary relationships and DNA barcoding
- Define and measure biodiversity and explain its importance
- Catalog organisms using the morphospecies concept
- Geographically map organisms using smartphones and an online mapping program
- Calculate metrics of species diversity using spreadsheet software
- Use spreadsheet software to quantify and graph biodiversity at forest edges vs. interiors
- Write a formal lab report
- Extract, amplify, visualize and sequence DNA using standard molecular techniques (PCR, gel electrophoresis, Sanger sequencing)
- Explain how DNA extraction, PCR, gel electrophoresis, and Sanger sequencing work at the molecular level
- Trim and assemble raw DNA sequence data
- Taxonomically identify DNA sequences isolated from unknown organisms using BLAST
- Visualize sequence data relationships using sequence alignments and gene-based phylogenetic trees
- Map and report data in a publicly available online database
- Share data in a formal scientific poster
An active-learning lesson that targets student understanding of population growth in ecologyLearning ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
- Calculate and compare population density and abundance.
- Identify whether a growth curve describes exponential, linear, and/or logistic growth.
- Describe and calculate a population's growth rate using linear, exponential, and logistic models.
- Explain the influence of carrying capacity and population density on growth rate.