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# Introductory Biology

• ### Learning to Pipet Correctly by Pipetting Incorrectly?

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to use analytical balances and micropipettes.
• Students will be able to calculate averages and standard deviations.
• Students will be able to use t-tests to compare two independent samples.
• Students will be able to justify accepting or rejecting a null hypothesis based on an interpretation of p-values.
• Students will learn to use spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel and/or Google Sheets
• Students will be able to explain how pipetting incorrectly leads to errors.
• ### Promoting Climate Change Literacy for Non-majors: Implementation of an atmospheric carbon dioxide modeling activity as...

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to manipulate and produce data and graphs.
• Students will be able to design a simple mathematical model of atmospheric CO2 that can be used to make predictions.
• Students will be able to conduct simulations, analyze, interpret, and draw conclusions about atmospheric CO2 levels from their own computer generated simulated data.

• ### Dynamic Daphnia: An inquiry-based research experience in ecology that teaches the scientific process to first-year...

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Construct written predictions about 1 factor experiments.
• Interpret simple (2 variables) figures.
• Construct simple (2 variables) figures from data.
• Design simple 1 factor experiments with appropriate controls.
• Demonstrate proper use of standard laboratory items, including a two-stop pipette, stereomicroscope, and laboratory notebook.
• Calculate means and standard deviations.
• Given some scaffolding (instructions), select the correct statistical test for a data set, be able to run a t-test, ANOVA, chi-squared test, and linear regression in Microsoft Excel, and be able to correctly interpret their results.
• Construct and present a scientific poster.
• ### A flexible, multi-week approach to plant biology - How will plants respond to higher levels of CO2?

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Apply findings from each week's lesson to make predictions and informed hypotheses about the next week's lesson.
• Keep a detailed laboratory notebook.
• Write and peer-edit the sections of a scientific paper, and collaboratively write an entire lab report in the form of a scientific research paper.
• Search for, find, and read scientific research papers.
• Work together as a team to conduct experiments.
• Connect findings and ideas from each week's lesson to get a broader understanding of how plants will respond to higher levels of CO2 (e.g., stomatal density, photosynthetic/respiratory rates, foliar protein concentrations, growth, and resource allocation).
Note: Additional, more specific objectives are included with each of the four lessons (Supporting Files S1-S4)
• ### A new approach to course-based research using a hermit crab-hydrozoan symbiosis

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• define different types of symbiotic interactions, with specific examples.
• summarize and critically evaluate contemporary primary literature relevant to ecological symbioses, in particular that between hermit crabs and Hydractinia spp.
• articulate a question, based on observations of a natural phenomenon (in this example, the hermit crab-Hydractinia interaction).
• articulate a testable hypothesis, based on their own observations and read of the literature.
• design appropriate experimental or observational studies to address their hypotheses.
• collect and interpret data in light of their hypotheses.
• problem-solve and troubleshoot issues that arise during their experiment.
• communicate scientific results, both orally and in written form.
• ### Quantifying and Visualizing Campus Tree Phenology

Learning Objectives
The Learning Objectives of this lesson span across the entire semester.
• Observe and collect information on phenological changes in local trees.
• Become familiar with a database and how to work with large datasets.
• Analyze and visualize data from the database to test their hypotheses and questions.
• Develop a research proposal including empirically-driven questions and hypotheses.
• Synthesize the results of their analysis in the context of plant biodiversity and local environmental conditions.
• ### CURE-all: Large Scale Implementation of Authentic DNA Barcoding Research into First-Year Biology Curriculum

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to: Week 1-4: Fundamentals of Science and Biology
• List the major processes involved in scientific discovery
• List the different types of scientific studies and which types can establish causation
• Design experiments with appropriate controls
• Create and evaluate phylogenetic trees
• Define taxonomy and phylogeny and explain their relationship to each other
• Explain DNA sequence divergence and how it applies to evolutionary relationships and DNA barcoding
Week 5-6: Ecology
• Define and measure biodiversity and explain its importance
• Catalog organisms using the morphospecies concept
• Geographically map organisms using smartphones and an online mapping program
• Calculate metrics of species diversity using spreadsheet software
• Use spreadsheet software to quantify and graph biodiversity at forest edges vs. interiors
• Write a formal lab report
Week 7-11: Cellular and Molecular Biology
• Extract, amplify, visualize and sequence DNA using standard molecular techniques (PCR, gel electrophoresis, Sanger sequencing)
• Explain how DNA extraction, PCR, gel electrophoresis, and Sanger sequencing work at the molecular level
Week 12-13: Bioinformatics
• Trim and assemble raw DNA sequence data
• Taxonomically identify DNA sequences isolated from unknown organisms using BLAST
• Visualize sequence data relationships using sequence alignments and gene-based phylogenetic trees
• Map and report data in a publicly available online database
• Share data in a formal scientific poster