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# Introductory Biology

• ### Using Pathway Maps to Link Concepts, Peer Review, Primary Literature Searches and Data Assessment in Large Enrollment...

Learning Objectives
• Define basic concepts and terminology of Ecosystem Ecology
• Link biological processes that affect each other
• Evaluate whether the link causes a positive, negative, or neutral effect
• Find primary literature
• Identify data that correctly supports or refutes an hypothesis
• ### Dynamic Daphnia: An inquiry-based research experience in ecology that teaches the scientific process to first-year...

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Construct written predictions about 1 factor experiments.
• Interpret simple (2 variables) figures.
• Construct simple (2 variables) figures from data.
• Design simple 1 factor experiments with appropriate controls.
• Demonstrate proper use of standard laboratory items, including a two-stop pipette, stereomicroscope, and laboratory notebook.
• Calculate means and standard deviations.
• Given some scaffolding (instructions), select the correct statistical test for a data set, be able to run a t-test, ANOVA, chi-squared test, and linear regression in Microsoft Excel, and be able to correctly interpret their results.
• Construct and present a scientific poster.
• ### Teaching RNAseq at Undergraduate Institutions: A tutorial and R package from the Genome Consortium for Active Teaching

Learning Objectives
• From raw RNAseq data, run a basic analysis culminating in a list of differentially expressed genes.
• Explain and evaluate statistical tests in RNAseq data. Specifically, given the output of a particular test, students should be able to interpret and explain the result.
• Use the Linux command line to complete specified objectives in an RNAseq workflow.
• Generate meaningful visualizations of results from new data in R.
• (In addition, each chapter of this lesson plan contains more specific learning objectives, such as “Students will demonstrate their ability to map reads to a reference.”)
• ### Learning to Pipet Correctly by Pipetting Incorrectly?

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to use analytical balances and micropipettes.
• Students will be able to calculate averages and standard deviations.
• Students will be able to use t-tests to compare two independent samples.
• Students will be able to justify accepting or rejecting a null hypothesis based on an interpretation of p-values.
• Students will learn to use spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel and/or Google Sheets
• Students will be able to explain how pipetting incorrectly leads to errors.
• ### Gotcha! Which fly trap is the best? An introduction to experimental data collection and analysis

Learning Objectives
Students will:
• design and execute an experiment
• collect, organize, and summarize data
• analyze and interpret data and make inferences
• ### A first lesson in mathematical modeling for biologists: Rocs

Learning Objectives
• Systematically develop a functioning, discrete, single-species model of an exponentially-growing or -declining population.
• Use the model to recommend appropriate action for population management.
• Communicate model output and recommendations to non-expert audiences.
• Generate a collaborative work product that most individuals could not generate on their own, given time and resource constraints.
• ### CURE-all: Large Scale Implementation of Authentic DNA Barcoding Research into First-Year Biology Curriculum

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to: Week 1-4: Fundamentals of Science and Biology
• List the major processes involved in scientific discovery
• List the different types of scientific studies and which types can establish causation
• Design experiments with appropriate controls
• Create and evaluate phylogenetic trees
• Define taxonomy and phylogeny and explain their relationship to each other
• Explain DNA sequence divergence and how it applies to evolutionary relationships and DNA barcoding
Week 5-6: Ecology
• Define and measure biodiversity and explain its importance
• Catalog organisms using the morphospecies concept
• Geographically map organisms using smartphones and an online mapping program
• Calculate metrics of species diversity using spreadsheet software
• Use spreadsheet software to quantify and graph biodiversity at forest edges vs. interiors
• Write a formal lab report
Week 7-11: Cellular and Molecular Biology
• Extract, amplify, visualize and sequence DNA using standard molecular techniques (PCR, gel electrophoresis, Sanger sequencing)
• Explain how DNA extraction, PCR, gel electrophoresis, and Sanger sequencing work at the molecular level
Week 12-13: Bioinformatics
• Trim and assemble raw DNA sequence data
• Taxonomically identify DNA sequences isolated from unknown organisms using BLAST
• Visualize sequence data relationships using sequence alignments and gene-based phylogenetic trees
• Map and report data in a publicly available online database
• Share data in a formal scientific poster
• ### Grow the Gradient: An interactive countercurrent multiplier game

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to simulate the movement of water and sodium at each region of the loop of Henle.
• Students will be able to associate osmosis and active transport with movement of water/solutes at each region of the loop of Henle.
• Students will be able to model how the descending and ascending limbs of the loop of Henle maintain a concentration gradient within the medulla.
• Students will be able to predict the effects of altering normal water and salt movement out of the loop of Henle on the salt concentration of the medulla, urine concentration, and urine volume.
• Students will be able to predict the impact of the length of the loop of Henle on the magnitude of the concentration gradient within the medulla.
• Students will be able to predict the length of the loop of Henle in organisms from different habitats.
• ### Using the Cell Engineer/Detective Approach to Explore Cell Structure and Function

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Identify the major cell organelles
• List the major functions of the organelles
• Predict how changes in organelle/cell structure could alter cellular function
• Explain how overall cellular function is dependent upon organelles/cell structure
• Relate cell structure to everyday contexts
• ### A Close-Up Look at PCR

Learning Objectives
At the end of this lesson students will be able to...
• Describe the role of a primer in PCR
• Predict sequence and length of PCR product based on primer sequences
• Recognize that primers are incorporated into the final PCR products and explain why
• Identify covalent and hydrogen bonds formed and broken during PCR
• Predict the structure of PCR products after each cycle of the reaction
• Explain why amplification proceeds exponentially
• ### Modeling the Research Process: Authentic human physiology research in a large non-majors course

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Formulate testable hypotheses
• Design an experimental procedure to test their hypothesis
• Make scientific observations
• Analyze and interpret data
• Communicate results visually and orally
• ### A new approach to course-based research using a hermit crab-hydrozoan symbiosis

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• define different types of symbiotic interactions, with specific examples.
• summarize and critically evaluate contemporary primary literature relevant to ecological symbioses, in particular that between hermit crabs and Hydractinia spp.
• articulate a question, based on observations of a natural phenomenon (in this example, the hermit crab-Hydractinia interaction).
• articulate a testable hypothesis, based on their own observations and read of the literature.
• design appropriate experimental or observational studies to address their hypotheses.
• collect and interpret data in light of their hypotheses.
• problem-solve and troubleshoot issues that arise during their experiment.
• communicate scientific results, both orally and in written form.
• ### Meiosis: A Play in Three Acts, Starring DNA Sequence

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to identify sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes at different stages of meiosis.
• Students will be able to identify haploid and diploid cells, whether or not the chromosomes are replicated.
• Students will be able to explain why homologous chromosomes must pair during meiosis.
• Students will be able to relate DNA sequence similarity to chromosomal structures.
• Students will be able to identify crossing over as the key to proper pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
• Students will be able to predict the outcomes of meiosis for a particular individual or cell.
• ### Promoting Climate Change Literacy for Non-majors: Implementation of an atmospheric carbon dioxide modeling activity as...

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to manipulate and produce data and graphs.
• Students will be able to design a simple mathematical model of atmospheric CO2 that can be used to make predictions.
• Students will be able to conduct simulations, analyze, interpret, and draw conclusions about atmospheric CO2 levels from their own computer generated simulated data.

• ### Coevolution or not? Crossbills, squirrels and pinecones

Learning Objectives
1. Define coevolution.
2. Identify types of evidence that would help determine whether two species are currently in a coevolutionary relationship.
3. Interpret graphs.
4. Evaluate evidence about whether two species are coevolving and use evidence to make a scientific argument.
5. Describe what evidence of a coevolutionary relationship might look like.
6. Distinguish between coadaptation and coevolution.
• ### Quantifying and Visualizing Campus Tree Phenology

Learning Objectives
The Learning Objectives of this lesson span across the entire semester.
• Observe and collect information on phenological changes in local trees.
• Become familiar with a database and how to work with large datasets.
• Analyze and visualize data from the database to test their hypotheses and questions.
• Develop a research proposal including empirically-driven questions and hypotheses.
• Synthesize the results of their analysis in the context of plant biodiversity and local environmental conditions.
• ### Using Place-Based Economically Relevant Organisms to Improve Student Understanding of the Roles of Carbon Dioxide,...

Learning Objectives
At the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Describe the roles of light energy and carbon dioxide in photosynthetic organisms.
• Identify the effect of nutrients on the growth of photosynthetic organisms.
• Describe global cycles in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and how they relate to photosynthetic organisms.
• ### Follow the Sulfur: Using Yeast Mutants to Study a Metabolic Pathway

Learning Objectives
At the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
• use spot plating techniques to compare the growth of yeast strains on solid culture media.
• predict the ability of specific met deletion strains to grow on media containing various sulfur sources.
• predict how mutations in specific genes will affect the concentrations of metabolites in the pathways involved in methionine biosynthesis.