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# Bioinformatics

• ### Infectious Chocolate Joy with a Side of Poissonian Statistics: An activity connecting life science students with subtle...

Learning Objectives
• Students will define a Poisson distribution.
• Students will generate a data set on the probability of a T cell being infected with a virus(es).
• Students will predict the likelihood of one observing the mean value of viruses occurring.
• Students will evaluate the outcomes of a random process.
• Students will hypothesize whether a process is Poissonian and design a test for that hypothesis.
• Students will collect data and create a histogram from their data.
• ### Sequence Similarity: An inquiry based and "under the hood" approach for incorporating molecular sequence...

Learning Objectives
At the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Define similarity in a non-biological and biological sense when provided with two strings of letters.
• Quantify the similarity between two gene/protein sequences.
• Explain how a substitution matrix is used to quantify similarity.
• Calculate amino acid similarity scores using a scoring matrix.
• Demonstrate how to access genomic data (e.g., from NCBI nucleotide and protein databases).
• Demonstrate how to use bioinformatics tools to analyze genomic data (e.g., BLASTP), explain a simplified BLAST search algorithm including how similarity is used to perform a BLAST search, and how to evaluate the results of a BLAST search.
• Create a nearest-neighbor distance matrix.
• Create a multiple sequence alignment using a nearest-neighbor distance matrix and a phylogram based on similarity of amino acid sequences.
• Use appropriate bioinformatics sequence alignment tools to investigate a biological question.
• ### A Hands-on Introduction to Hidden Markov Models

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to process unannotated genomic data using ab initio gene finders as well as other inputs.
• Students will be able to defend the proposed gene annotation.
• Students will reflect on the other uses for HMMs.
• ### An undergraduate bioinformatics curriculum that teaches eukaryotic gene structure

Learning Objectives
Module 1
• Demonstrate basic skills in using the UCSC Genome Browser to navigate to a genomic region and to control the display settings for different evidence tracks.
• Explain the relationships among DNA, pre-mRNA, mRNA, and protein.
Module 2
• Describe how a primary transcript (pre-mRNA) can be synthesized using a DNA molecule as the template.
• Explain the importance of the 5' and 3' regions of the gene for initiation and termination of transcription by RNA polymerase II.
• Identify the beginning and the end of a transcript using the capabilities of the genome browser.
Module 3
• Explain how the primary transcript generated by RNA polymerase II is processed to become a mature mRNA, using the sequence signals identified in Module 2.
• Use the genome browser to analyze the relationships among:
• pre-mRNA
• 5' capping
• splicing
• mRNA
Module 4
• Identify splice donor and acceptor sites that are best supported by RNA-Seq data and TopHat splice junction predictions.
• Utilize the canonical splice donor and splice acceptor sequences to identify intron-exon boundaries.
Module 5
• Determine the codons for specific amino acids and identify reading frames by examining the Base Position track in the genome browser.
• Assemble exons to maintain the open reading frame (ORF) for a given gene.
• Define the phases of the splice donor and acceptor sites and describe how they impact the maintenance of the ORF.
• Identify the start and stop codons of an assembled ORF.
Module 6
• Demonstrate how alternative splicing of a gene can lead to different mRNAs.
• Show how alternative splicing can lead to the production of different polypeptides and result in drastic changes in phenotype.
• ### Homologous chromosomes? Exploring human sex chromosomes, sex determination and sex reversal using bioinformatics...

Learning Objectives
Students successfully completing this lesson will:
• Practice navigating an online bioinformatics resource and identify evidence relevant to solving investigation questions
• Contrast the array of genes expected on homologous autosomal chromosomes pairs with the array of genes expected on sex chromosome pairs
• Use bioinformatics evidence to defend the definition of homologous chromosomes
• Define chromosomal sex and defend the definition using experimental data
• Investigate the genetic basis of human chromosomal sex determination
• Identify at least two genetic mutations can lead to sex reversal
• ### Exploration of the Human Genome by Investigation of Personalized SNPs

Learning Objectives
Students successfully completing this lesson will be able to:
• Effectively use the bioinformatics databases (SNPedia, the UCSC Genome Browser, and NCBI) to explore SNPs of interest within the human genome.
• Identify three health-related SNPs of personal interest and use the UCSC Genome Browser to define their precise chromosomal locations and determine whether they lie within a gene or are intergenic.
• Establish a list of all genome-wide association studies correlated with a particular health-related SNP.
• Predict which model organism would be most appropriate for conducting further research on a human disease.
• ### Using computational molecular modeling software to demonstrate how DNA mutations cause phenotypes

Learning Objectives
Students successfully completing this lesson will:
1. Practice basic molecular biology laboratory skills such as DNA isolation, PCR, and gel electrophoresis.
2. Gather and analyze quantitative and qualitative scientific data and present it in figures.
3. Use bioinformatics to analyze DNA sequences and obtain protein sequences for molecular modeling.
4. Make and analyze three-dimensional (3-D) protein models using molecular modeling software.
5. Write a laboratory report using the collected data to explain how mutations in the DNA cause changes in protein structure/function which lead to mutant phenotypes.
• ### CRISPR/Cas9 in yeast: a multi-week laboratory exercise for undergraduate students

Learning Objectives
Week 1: CRISPR design
• Locate the coding sequence, flanking sequence, protein product, and characteristics of a given gene from the Saccharomyces Genome Database (https://www.yeastgenome.org/).
• Design and defend the design of guide RNA and single stranded template for DNA repair in CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing studies to generate Saccharomyces cerevisiae auxotrophic mutants.
Week 3-4: Cloning
• Describe the qualities of the vector, pML104, that allow replication and selection in bacteria and yeast as well as allow expression of necessary factors in CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, including Cas9 and sgRNA.
• Describe the rationale of and perform procedures necessary for cloning a small cassette (i.e., sgRNA gene) into a vector (i.e., pML104) including; restriction digest, annealing of DNA strands, removal of 5’ phosphates, ligation, and transformation.
• Recognize and design appropriate controls for cloning procedures such as ligation and transformation.
Week 5: Screening clones
• Describe the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including the rationale for essential components of a reaction mixture and thermal-cycling conditions.
• Locate the binding sites of and design primers for PCR, then report the expected size of the amplification product.
• Describe and perform isolation of plasmid DNA from E. coli.
Week 6: Selection of clones and transformation of yeast
• Describe the rationale for and perform procedures to transform yeast, including the essential components of a transformation mixture and conditions necessary for transformation.
• Describe the basic conditions required for cultivating yeast.
• Describe the rationale for and perform agarose gel electrophoresis of a given size of DNA.
• Analyze DNA separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, including size estimation.
• Recognize and describe the qualities of a template for DNA repair that allows efficient DNA repair.
Week 7: Phenotyping
• Design an experiment to determine auxotrophic phenotypes.
• Predict the outcome of multi-step experiments.
Multiweek
• Recognize and describe conditions necessary for growth of E. coli and S. cerevisiae.
• Qualitatively and quantitatively analyze scientific data from scientific experiments, including bacterial and yeast transformation, agarose gel electrophoresis, extraction of plasmid DNA from bacteria, PCR, and auxotroph phenotypic analysis.
• Communicate science to peers through maintenance of a laboratory notebook, verbal communication with group members, and writing of a formal laboratory report written in a format acceptable for journal publication.
• Troubleshoot scientific protocols by identifying procedures that are prone to error, comparing recommended protocols to actual procedure, and using positive and negative controls to narrow the location of a potential error.
• Communicate specific potential or actual uses of CRISPR/Cas9 in science and/or medicine.
Alignment with Society-Generated Learning Objectives - From Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Genetics Learning Frameworks
• Use various bioinformatics approaches to analyze macromolecular primary sequence and structure.
• Illustrate how DNA is replicated and genes are transmitted from one generation to the next in multiple types of organisms including bacteria, eukaryotes, viruses, and retroviruses.
• Define what a genome consists of and how the information in various genes and other sequence classes within each genome are used to store and express genetic information.
• Explain the meaning of ploidy (haploid, diploid, aneuploid etc.) and how it relates to the number of homologues of each chromosome.
• Predict the effects of mutations on the activity, structure, or stability of a protein and design appropriate experiments to assess the effects of mutations.
• Predict the growth behavior of microbes based on their growth conditions, e.g., temperature, available nutrient, aeration level, etc.
• Discuss the benefits of specific tools of modern biotechnology that are derived from naturally occurring microbes (e.g. cloning vectors, restriction enzymes, Taq polymerase, etc.)
• Accurately prepare and use reagents and perform experiments.
• When presented with an observation, develop a testable and falsifiable hypothesis.
• When provided with a hypothesis, identify the appropriate experimental observations and controllable variables.