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# Anatomy Physiology

• ### Modeling the Research Process: Authentic human physiology research in a large non-majors course

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• Read current scientific literature
• Formulate testable hypotheses
• Design an experimental procedure to test their hypothesis
• Make scientific observations
• Analyze and interpret data
• Communicate results visually and orally
• ### It's a bird! It's a plane! It's biomechanics!

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• identify and define forces that act on an object in flight.
• understand the definition of Newton’s third law of motion, which states that with every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, and apply this principle to explain pressure differences and lift generation.
• generate hypotheses about animal flight efficiency based on examining morphology (anatomy).
• generate hypotheses correlating wing size and performance during flight.
• apply their understanding of wing designs and wing relationships to total mass.
• compare flight principles among animals to understand the co-evolution in several animal groups.
• ### What do Bone and Silly Putty® have in Common?: A Lesson on Bone Viscoelasticity

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to explain how the anatomical structure of long bones relates to their function.
• Students will be able to define viscoelasticity, hysteresis, anisotropy, stiffness, strength, ductility, and toughness.
• Students will be able to identify the elastic and plastic regions of a stress-strain curve. They will be able to correlate each phase of the stress-strain curve with physical changes to bone.
• Students will be able to predict how a bone would respond to changes in the magnitude of an applied force, and to variations in the speed or angle at which a force is applied.
• Students will be able to determine the reason(s) why bone injuries occur more frequently during athletic events than during normal everyday use.
• ### The Science Behind the ACTN3 Polymorphism

Learning Objectives
This article accompanies the lesson "The ACTN3 Polymorphism: Applications in Genetics and Physiology Teaching Laboratories." Learning objectives for the lesson include:
1. Test hypotheses related to the role of ACTN3 in skeletal muscle function.
2. Explain how polymorphic variants of the ACTN3 gene affect protein structure and function.
3. List and explain the differences between fast twitch and slow twitch muscle fibers.
4. List and explain possible roles of the ACTN3 protein in skeletal muscle function.
5. Find and analyze relevant scientific publications about the relationship between ACTN3 genotype and muscle function.
6. Formulate hypotheses related to the relationship between ACTN3 genotype and skeletal muscle function.
7. Design experiments to test hypotheses about the role of ACTN3 in skeletal muscle function.
8. Statistically analyze experimental results using relevant software.
9. Present experimental results in writing.
• ### Sex and gender: What does it mean to be female or male?

Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to distinguish between sex and gender, and apply each term appropriately.
• Students will be able to compare and contrast levels of sexual determination.
• Students will be able to critique societal misrepresentations surrounding sex, gender, and gender identity.
• ### The Inside and Outside the Body

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
• correctly identify when a substance (e.g. fetus, bacteria, toxins) is inside or outside the body.
• recognize the point at which a substance transitions from the inside to the outside of the body and vice versa.
• apply the concept of inside and outside the body to both normal events, such as the movement of oxygen from the alveolus to the blood, and abnormal events, such as the presence of blood in the urine.
• ### The ACTN3 Polymorphism: Applications in Genetics and Physiology Teaching Laboratories

Learning Objectives
1. Test hypotheses related to the role of ACTN3 in skeletal muscle function.
2. Explain how polymorphic variants of the ACTN3 gene affect protein structure and function.
3. List and explain the differences between fast twitch and slow twitch muscle fibers.
4. List and explain possible roles of the ACTN3 protein in skeletal muscle function.
5. Find and analyze relevant scientific publications about the relationship between ACTN3 genotype and muscle function.
6. Formulate hypotheses related to the relationship between ACTN3 genotype and skeletal muscle function.
7. Design experiments to test hypotheses about the role of ACTN3 in skeletal muscle function.
8. Statistically analyze experimental results using relevant software.
9. Present experimental results in writing.