Skip to main content

You are here

Nature of Genetic Material

Genetics Learning Framework

Society Learning Goals Articles Sample Learning Objectives
Nature of Genetic Material
How is DNA organized?
  • Explain the meaning of ploidy (haploid, diploid, aneuploid etc.) and how it relates to the number of homologues of each chromosome.
  • Describe how the positions of individual genes on a given chromosome are related to their positions on the homolog of that chromosome.
  • Differentiate between a gene and an allele, including the recognition that genes may have many alleles.
  • Explain the functional significance of packaging DNA into chromosomes and the lack of correlation between chromosome size and genetic information content.
  • Describe the types of DNA regions that do not encode proteins: the general organization, possible function, and frequency of genes and non-gene DNA sequences in a typical eukaryotic genome.
  • Explain what is meant by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and short tandem repeat (STR), and explain how SNPs and STRs can be used as genetic markers even if they do not cause phenotypic changes.
  • Discuss how DNA is packaged in the chromosomes in terms of histones, nucleosomes, and chromatin.
What are the molecular components and mechanisms necessary to preserve and duplicate an organism’s genome?
  • Draw a simple line diagram showing a segment of DNA from a gene and its RNA transcript, indicating which DNA strand is the template, the direction of transcription and the polarities of all DNA and RNA strands.
  • Describe the process of mitosis, transcription, and translation. How are mistakes in these processes identified and corrected?


No current announcements