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Genetics

The study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics

Members of the Genetics Society of America have worked with CourseSource to create a Learning Framework for the Genetics Course. The table below lists the learning goals and objectives that the Society agrees any undergraduate biological sciences major should know about Genetics by the time they graduate.  

The following people worked to develop this society-approved Genetics Learning Framework:

Ken Burtis (University of California, Davis), Scott Hawley (Stowers Institute) and Michelle Smith (University of Maine).

Genetics Learning Framework

Society Learning Goals Articles Sample Learning Objectives
Nature of Genetic Material
How is DNA organized?
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  • Explain the meaning of ploidy (haploid, diploid, aneuploid etc.) and how it relates to the number of homologues of each chromosome.
  • Describe how the positions of individual genes on a given chromosome are related to their positions on the homolog of that chromosome.
  • Differentiate between a gene and an allele, including the recognition that genes may have many alleles.
  • Explain the functional significance of packaging DNA into chromosomes and the lack of correlation between chromosome size and genetic information content.
  • Describe the types of DNA regions that do not encode proteins: the general organization, possible function, and frequency of genes and non-gene DNA sequences in a typical eukaryotic genome.
  • Explain what is meant by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and short tandem repeat (STR), and explain how SNPs and STRs can be used as genetic markers even if they do not cause phenotypic changes.
  • Discuss how DNA is packaged in the chromosomes in terms of histones, nucleosomes, and chromatin.
What are the molecular components and mechanisms necessary to preserve and duplicate an organism’s genome?
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  • Draw a simple line diagram showing a segment of DNA from a gene and its RNA transcript, indicating which DNA strand is the template, the direction of transcription and the polarities of all DNA and RNA strands.
  • Describe the process of mitosis, transcription, and translation. How are mistakes in these processes identified and corrected?
Transmission - Patterns of Inheritance
How can one deduce information about genes, alleles, and gene functions from analysis of genetic crosses and patterns of inheritance?
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  • Draw a pedigree based on information in a story problem.
  • Using pedigrees, distinguish between dominant, recessive, autosomal, X-linked, and cytoplasmic modes of inheritance.
  • Predict the transmission of phenotypes associated with maternal effect genes.
  • Explain why the terms “dominant” and “recessive” are context dependent and may differ at the cellular level or at the level of a pedigree.
  • Calculate the probability that an individual in a pedigree has a particular genotype (using Bayesian inference if appropriate for course).
  • Design genetic crosses to provide information about genes, alleles, and gene functions.
  • Interpret the results of experiments comparing the phenotypes that result from single mutations in two different genes with the phenotype of the double mutant, contrasting epistatic and additive interactions.
  • Explain how continuous traits are the result of many different gene combinations that can each contribute a varying amount to a phenotype.
  • Evaluate how genes and the environment can interact to produce a phenotype.
How does the phenomenon of linkage affect the assortment of alleles during meiosis?
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  • Diagram the process of homologous recombination during meiosis and explain how it can lead to new combinations of linked alleles.
  • Explain the role of homologous recombination in ensuring proper segregation of homologs in meiosis I
  • Explain how a specific combination of linked alleles (haplotype) can persist through many generations (linkage disequilibrium).
  • Calculate gene linkage and genetic map distances and interference from the frequencies of progeny with recombinant phenotypes from genetic crosses.
  • Explain how genetic distance is different from physical distance.
  • Calculate the probability of a particular gamete being produced from an individual, provided map distance.
  • Use statistical analysis to determine how well data from a genetic cross or human pedigree analysis fits theoretical predictions including an explanation of the appropriate statistical test.
  • Explain the meaning of a LOD score.
What are the mechanisms by which an organism’s genome is passed on to the next generation?
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  • Distinguish between somatic and germline cells; listing similarities and differences.
  • Compare and explain the inheritance of germline and somatic mutations.
  • Describe, using diagrams, the sequence of events involving DNA in meiosis from chromosome duplication through chromosome segregation. Explain how meiosis is different from mitosis.
  • Describe the difference between meiosis in mammalian males and females.
  • Distinguish between sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes.
  • Explain how independent assortment of alleles during meiosis can lead to new combinations of alleles of unlinked genes.
  • Discuss how errors in chromosome number can arise during meiosis, and why such alterations can be detrimental
  • Explain how abnormalities in gene dosage can affect phenotype.
  • Calculate the probability of a particular gamete being produced from an individual, assuming independent segregation.
  • Calculate the probability of a particular genotype, given independent segregation and random union of gametes between two individuals.
  • Contrast the mechanisms of inheritance of nuclear and organellar genetic information
Molecular biology of gene function
How is genetic information expressed so it affects an organism's structure and function?
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  • Describe how expansion or retraction of triplet repeats can alter gene function and create a phenotype.
  • Explain how the genetic code relates transcription to translation
  • Discuss how various factors might influence the relationship between genotype and phenotype (e.g. incomplete penetrance, variable expressivity, and sex-limited phenotype).
  • Explain how abnormalities in gene dosage can affect phenotype.
Gene Expression and Regulation
How can gene activity be altered in the absence of DNA changes?
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  • Discuss the roles of types of RNA other than mRNA in expressing genetic information.
  • Contrast the packaging of DNA into euchromatin versus heterochromatin in the context of histone modification, and DNA modification (where applicable)
  • Defend how most cells can have the same genetic content and yet have different functions in the body.
  • Discuss the potential roles of DNA modification, histone modification, and non-coding RNA in epigenetic inheritance, both somatic and germline
  • Discuss environmental impacts on epigenetic systems
How do genes and genomes control changes in an organism's structure and function throughout its life cycle?
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  • Describe how differential histone modification modulates gene activity and is utilized in developmental progression .
  • Use a model systems to describe investigations of evo-devo.
  • Describe genetic cascades; use the sex-determination cascade to explain how differential gene expression can result in the development of different sexes.
  • Explain how polarity is established in a developing embryo using gene expression gradients.
Genetic variation
How do different types of mutations affect genes and the corresponding mRNAs and proteins?
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  • Describe how duplications, deletions, inversions, and translocations can affect gene function, gene expression, and genetic recombination. Describe the same for transposable elements.
  • Describe how mutations arise and how environmental factors can increase mutation rate.
  • Cite examples of mutations that can be beneficial to organisms.
  • Interpret results from experiments to distinguish between different types of DNA rearrangements.
  • Distinguish between loss of function and gain of function mutations and their potential phenotypic consequences.
  • Predict the most likely effects on protein structure and function of null, reduction-of-function, overexpression, dominant-negative and gain-of-function mutations.
  • Compare the role of both loss and gain of function mutations in the origin of tumors
Evolution and Population genetics
What are the processes that can affect the frequency of genotypes and phenotypes in a population over time?
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  • Describe the mechanisms by which variation arises and is fixed (or lost) in a population over time.
  • Calculate allele frequencies based on phenotypic or genotypic data for a population, and be able to explain the assumptions that make such a calculation possible.
  • Model how random mating yields predicted genotype frequencies in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), and how non-random mating affects allele and genotype frequencies.
  • Test whether HWE has been reached in a population.
  • Explain how inbreeding increases the number of homozygotes (and possibly disease) in comparison to HWE.
  • Explain how natural selection and genetic drift can affect the elimination, maintenance or increase in frequency of various types of alleles (e.g. dominant, recessive, deleterious, beneficial) in a population.
  • Interpret experiments to determine the relative influences of genes and the environment on a given phenotype.
  • Describe how variation can be measured, and what can be done to distinguish genetic and environmental sources of variation.
  • Interpret bioinformatics data to compare homologous genes in different species and infer relative degrees of evolutionary relatedness.
  • Use comparative data from multiple species to identify which regions of a protein, pathway, regulatory system etc. are critical for function.
Genetics of model organisms
How do the results of molecular genetic studies in model organisms help us understand aspects of human genetics and genetic diseases?
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  • Justify why information on functions of human genes can often be acquired through studies of simple model organisms such as yeast, nematode worms, and fruit flies.
  • Compare the benefits and limitations of using model organisms to study human genes and human genetic diseases. Identify specific cases where insights from model organisms have provided crucial insights into human disease.
  • Defend the assertion that genetic testing will play a central role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in the future.
Methods & Tools in Genetics
What experimental methods are commonly used to analyze gene structure and gene expression?
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  • Explain reverse genetics and compare methods for generating specific mutations in the genome vs. generating phenocopies using techniques such as RNAi or morpholinos.
  • Explain the method of SNP/STR mapping and interpret SNP/STR mapping data to pinpoint the chromosomal location of a human disease gene.
  • Interpret complementation tests, including an assessment of the molecular interactions that might yield the results observed.
Genetics & Ethics
How does genetics impact society and society impact genetics?
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  • Compare the benefits and risks associated with the acquisition, ownership and storage of personal genetic and genomic information.
  • Defend the assertion that genetic testing will play a central role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in the future.
  • Contrast past and present views about how genetic information should be used by society, employers, and the government in support of public policies.
  • Write about how obtaining personal genetic information could lead to negative consequences affecting others.

Genetics Society of America

  • The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.

    Course Editor(s):

    • Jennifer Knight
      Editor Degrees: 

      Ph.D. in Neuroscience, University of Michigan

      About Teaching and Course Source: 

      Jenny Knight is an Associate Professor in the Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology at the University of Colorado, Boulder.  She has a Ph.D. in Neuroscience from the University of Michigan, where she studied eye development, and she worked on the genetic control of gastrulation in C. elegans as a postdoc.  She has been teaching undergraduates at all levels for eighteen years, ranging from freshmen-level genetics to senior-level developmental biology.  In biology education research, she led the development of the Genetics Concept Assessment (GCA) the Introductory Molecular Biology Assessment (IMCA), and the Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment, all designed to diagnose student misunderstandings and measure learning gains in typical undergraduate biology courses, as well as helping to develop an attitudes assessment, the Bio-CLASS, and a taxonomy for measuring Scientific Teaching (MIST). Her studies on the use and benefits of clicker questions in large lecture environments have shown that students learn from each other during peer discussions of questions, and that the nature of their discussions is heavily influenced by cues from instructors. Her current work focuses on understanding how students engage in complex problem solving and scientific reasoning, particularly in genetics. Dr. Knight coordinated the MCDB Science Education Initiative for 7 years (2007-2014), ran the Mountain West Regional National Academies Summer Institute on Undergraduate Education in Biology for 5 years (2010-2015), and is actively involved in CU’s Center for STEM Learning, as well as other national organizations devoted to science education research.  Given this extensive work with faculty in improving teaching and student learning, she is eager to be involved in the mission of CourseSource.

    • Lisa McDonnel
      Editor Degrees: 

      Ph.D. in Forestry, University of British Columbia

      MS. in Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa

      BS. in Biology and Biotechnology, Carleton University, Ottawa

      About Teaching and Course Source: 

      I have primarily taught biology at the undergraduate level, with some additional experience teaching about pedagogy at the graduate level. I truly love teaching because it excites me to be a part of other’s learning, but also because teaching allows me to continue to learn about a field as a result of student questions and how research is constantly advancing. My goal as an educator is to engage as many students as possible in the learning process, helping them develop deeper understandings of the biological world. I believe that in order for students to gain such deeper understanding, they must actively construct their own knowledge onto their existing knowledge and experiences. I strive to create multiple, different opportunities in my courses for students to develop critical thinking skills, engage in scientific argumentation, and apply conceptual understanding to solve problems.

      I was fortunate to have an opportunity during my post-doctoral fellowship to learn about curriculum design and have the time to develop lessons and activities to enhance student engagement and learning of various concepts in biology. However, I recognize that we don’t always have the time to devote to developing new material, as much as we may want to do so to improve the learning experiences we are providing. CourseSource provides an incredible resource to educators in a variety of disciplines. I have benefited from the articles on CourseSource many times, and being involved in CourseSource is a way for me to contribute to this valuable resource. 

    • Rachelle Spell
      Editor Degrees: 

      Ph.D. in Biology, Harvard University

      B.S. in Biology, Wake Forest University

      About Teaching and Course Source: 

      In my fifteen years of teaching at Emory University, I have taught small graduate courses on recombination to mini-courses on evolution to Tibetan monks, but the bulk of my teaching introduces new college students to biology in large lecture courses. My goals in the classroom are to engage the students through real-life applications, connect new knowledge to basic principles, and to confront pedagogical barriers to understanding.  Learning requires that students acknowledge gaps in their knowledge while simultaneously feeling empowered to fill those gaps through active learning and study.  A well-developed curriculum helps the teacher support that precarious psychology.

      In addition to my teaching, I am committed to also helping others teach.  Teaching should be collaborative, developmental, and iterative.  Publishing in CourseSource allows teachers to support each other while gaining scholarly recognition for their efforts. 

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