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Evolution and Population genetics

Genetics Learning Framework

Society Learning Goals Articles Sample Learning Objectives
Evolution and Population genetics
What are the processes that can affect the frequency of genotypes and phenotypes in a population over time?
  • Describe the mechanisms by which variation arises and is fixed (or lost) in a population over time.
  • Calculate allele frequencies based on phenotypic or genotypic data for a population, and be able to explain the assumptions that make such a calculation possible.
  • Model how random mating yields predicted genotype frequencies in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), and how non-random mating affects allele and genotype frequencies.
  • Test whether HWE has been reached in a population.
  • Explain how inbreeding increases the number of homozygotes (and possibly disease) in comparison to HWE.
  • Explain how natural selection and genetic drift can affect the elimination, maintenance or increase in frequency of various types of alleles (e.g. dominant, recessive, deleterious, beneficial) in a population.
  • Interpret experiments to determine the relative influences of genes and the environment on a given phenotype.
  • Describe how variation can be measured, and what can be done to distinguish genetic and environmental sources of variation.
  • Interpret bioinformatics data to compare homologous genes in different species and infer relative degrees of evolutionary relatedness.
  • Use comparative data from multiple species to identify which regions of a protein, pathway, regulatory system etc. are critical for function.


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