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How does carcinogenesis occur in response to genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens?

Topic

Biological information

Framing Question

How does carcinogenesis occur in response to genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens?

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the general characteristics of cells that have undergone neoplastic conversion.
  • Describe the mutational theory of carcinogenesis and explain the evidence that supports it.
  • Explain the roles that protooncogenes can play in normal cell function; then relate these, using specific examples, to the role of proto-oncogenes in carcinogenesis.
  • Describe the role of tumor suppressor genes; using specific examples, explain how they can play a role in preventing and/
  • or genetically predisposing to cancer.
  • Compare and contrast the effects of point and frameshift mutations on a gene.
  • Identify the parts of the DNA molecule which are most vulnerable to damage by physical and chemical agents and describe the mechanisms through which the damage occurs.
  • Explain the differences between pro-carcinogens and carcinogens and name examples of each.
  • Explain the concept of promotion and discuss the various mechanisms through which toxicants can act as promoters.
  • Describe the excision repair and mismatch repair systems for repairing DNA damage.
  • Compare and contrast the threshold versus the non-threshold models for risk following exposure to carcinogens and be able to discuss the public policy implications of both.
  • Explain the concepts behind in vitro tests for mutagenic potential of toxicants and compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of these test versus animal bioassay studies.

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