How does carcinogenesis occur in response to genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens?
- Describe the general characteristics of cells that have undergone neoplastic conversion.
- Describe the mutational theory of carcinogenesis and explain the evidence that supports it.
- Explain the roles that protooncogenes can play in normal cell function; then relate these, using specific examples, to the role of proto-oncogenes in carcinogenesis.
- Describe the role of tumor suppressor genes; using specific examples, explain how they can play a role in preventing and/
- or genetically predisposing to cancer.
- Compare and contrast the effects of point and frameshift mutations on a gene.
- Identify the parts of the DNA molecule which are most vulnerable to damage by physical and chemical agents and describe the mechanisms through which the damage occurs.
- Explain the differences between pro-carcinogens and carcinogens and name examples of each.
- Explain the concept of promotion and discuss the various mechanisms through which toxicants can act as promoters.
- Describe the excision repair and mismatch repair systems for repairing DNA damage.
- Compare and contrast the threshold versus the non-threshold models for risk following exposure to carcinogens and be able to discuss the public policy implications of both.
- Explain the concepts behind in vitro tests for mutagenic potential of toxicants and compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of these test versus animal bioassay studies.