How do cells respond to exposure to toxicants?
- Describe the types of chemical bonds that can characterize the interaction of toxicants with the major classes of cellular macromolecules.
- Explain the interaction of toxicants with enzymes in terms of sites of action and enzyme kinetics, including the differences between competitive and noncompetitive inhibition.
- Describe the major categories of receptors found in cells and differentiate between toxicants classified as agonists, antagonists, and partial agonists in terms of their interactions with those receptors.
- Explain the potential impact of toxicants on ion channels in terms of membrane potentials.
- Describe the sources and characteristics of free radicals and explain the mechanisms behind the process of lipid peroxidation.
- Explain what alkylating agents are and discuss how they interact with DNA.
- Explain the circumstances under which cells produce stress proteins and describe examples of some of their protective mechanisms and effects (including the role of several stress proteins as
- Compare and contrast the mechanisms behind cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy.