How have mutations and horizontal gene transfer, with immense variety of microenvironments, selected for a huge diversity of microorganisms?
- List three mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria.
- State two processes by which mutations can occur.
- Describe how mutations and horizontal gene transfer, together with selective pressure, can lead to a rise of antibiotic resistance (or xenobiotic bioremediation).
- Give an example of a bacterial pathogen that devolved naturally or artificially to become attenuated (e.g., vaccine strains, intracellular pathogens, etc.). Support the example with evidence.
- Analyze and interpret sequence data to determine if horizontal gene transfer, mutation, or recombination has occurred.
- Give an example of a trait (e.g., N2 fixation, pathogenicity island, type III secretion, etc.) that is found in diverse bacteria, and provide evidence that explains how that trait came to be.