How did cells, organelles (e.g., mitochondria and chloroplasts), and all major metabolic pathways evolve from early prokaryotic cells?
- Define endosymbiotic theory with respect to mitochondria and chloroplasts.
- Explain why glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the tricarboxylic (Krebs) cycle are so highly conserved in living cells (e.g., 12 essential precursors and energy).
- State at least two characteristics that all living cells share (e.g., membrane, DNA, and metabolism).
- Describe the evidence that supports the theory that mitochondria evolved from bacteria.
- Describe the evidence that supports the theory that chloroplasts evolved from cyanobacteria.