Evolution and Population genetics
What are the processes that can affect the frequency of genotypes and phenotypes in a population over time?
- Describe the mechanisms by which variation arises and is fixed (or lost) in a population over time.
- Calculate allele frequencies based on phenotypic or genotypic data for a population, and be able to explain the assumptions that make such a calculation possible.
- Model how random mating yields predicted genotype frequencies in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), and how non-random mating affects allele and genotype frequencies.
- Test whether HWE has been reached in a population.
- Explain how inbreeding increases the number of homozygotes (and possibly disease) in comparison to HWE.
- Explain how natural selection and genetic drift can affect the elimination, maintenance or increase in frequency of various types of alleles (e.g. dominant, recessive, deleterious, beneficial) in a population.
- Interpret experiments to determine the relative influences of genes and the environment on a given phenotype.
- Describe how variation can be measured, and what can be done to distinguish genetic and environmental sources of variation.
- Interpret bioinformatics data to compare homologous genes in different species and infer relative degrees of evolutionary relatedness.
- Use comparative data from multiple species to identify which regions of a protein, pathway, regulatory system etc. are critical for function.