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What are the processes that can affect the frequency of genotypes and phenotypes in a population over time?

Topic

Evolution and Population genetics

Framing Question

What are the processes that can affect the frequency of genotypes and phenotypes in a population over time?

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the mechanisms by which variation arises and is fixed (or lost) in a population over time.
  • Calculate allele frequencies based on phenotypic or genotypic data for a population, and be able to explain the assumptions that make such a calculation possible.
  • Model how random mating yields predicted genotype frequencies in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), and how non-random mating affects allele and genotype frequencies.
  • Test whether HWE has been reached in a population.
  • Explain how inbreeding increases the number of homozygotes (and possibly disease) in comparison to HWE.
  • Explain how natural selection and genetic drift can affect the elimination, maintenance or increase in frequency of various types of alleles (e.g. dominant, recessive, deleterious, beneficial) in a population.
  • Interpret experiments to determine the relative influences of genes and the environment on a given phenotype.
  • Describe how variation can be measured, and what can be done to distinguish genetic and environmental sources of variation.
  • Interpret bioinformatics data to compare homologous genes in different species and infer relative degrees of evolutionary relatedness.
  • Use comparative data from multiple species to identify which regions of a protein, pathway, regulatory system etc. are critical for function.

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