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What are the mechanisms by which an organism’s genome is passed on to the next generation?

Topic

Transmission - Patterns of Inheritance

Framing Question

What are the mechanisms by which an organism’s genome is passed on to the next generation?

Learning Objectives

  • Distinguish between somatic and germline cells; listing similarities and differences.
  • Compare and explain the inheritance of germline and somatic mutations.
  • Describe, using diagrams, the sequence of events involving DNA in meiosis from chromosome duplication through chromosome segregation. Explain how meiosis is different from mitosis.
  • Describe the difference between meiosis in mammalian males and females.
  • Distinguish between sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes.
  • Explain how independent assortment of alleles during meiosis can lead to new combinations of alleles of unlinked genes.
  • Discuss how errors in chromosome number can arise during meiosis, and why such alterations can be detrimental
  • Explain how abnormalities in gene dosage can affect phenotype.
  • Calculate the probability of a particular gamete being produced from an individual, assuming independent segregation.
  • Calculate the probability of a particular genotype, given independent segregation and random union of gametes between two individuals.
  • Contrast the mechanisms of inheritance of nuclear and organellar genetic information

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