Energy is required and transformed in biological systems
What is the nature of biological energy?
- Compare and contrast biologically relevant forms of energy (e.g. kinetic energy versus potential energy, energy stored in bonds versus potential energy of concentration gradients).
- Identify and explain instances when energy is converted from one form to another.
- Write a general chemical reaction and the corresponding mathematical expression that approximates its equilibrium constant (Keq).
- Explain the relationship between equilibrium constants and reaction rate constants
- Apply knowledge of basic chemical thermodynamics to biologically catalyzed systems.
- Account for energy changes in the intermediate steps that define a biological process and predict the spontaneity of the overall process or an intermediate step.
- Explain the properties of biomolecules with high-energy transfer potential that make them suitable as energy currency.