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How do enzymes catalyze biological reactions?

Topic

Energy is required and transformed in biological systems

Framing Question

How do enzymes catalyze biological reactions?

Learning Objectives

  • Identify the factors contributing to the activation energy of a reaction.
  • Explain transition state stabilization.
  • Calculate the rate enhancement of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
  • Explain what a substrate is in terms of being a reactant.
  • Differentiate between the activation energy, the free energy and standard free energy of a reaction.
  • Use kinetic parameters to compare enzymes.
  • Distinguish the different forms of catalytic inhibition and explain how and why they differ.
  • Quantitatively model how catalyzed reactions occur and calculate kinetic parameters of enzymes from experimental data.
  • Explain how catalytic parameters vary as one varies substrate or enzyme concentration.
  • Interpret the physical meaning of various kinetic parameters and describe the underlying assumptions and conditions (such as steady state or equilibrium) on which different parameters depend

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